The main secrets of planting onion sets before winter: how and when to plant correctly
The harvest of onions depends on the planting technology, adherence to agricultural techniques, storage and care tricks. In the fall, planting onion sets before winter causes some concern among gardeners - there is a possibility that the bulbs will die and will not sprout in the spring. Therefore, we will give recommendations and advice on winter sowing of onions and proper care for them.
The content of the article
- Features of planting onion sets before winter
- Varieties and hybrids of winter onion sets
- When to plant onion sets before winter
- Preparing the soil for autumn planting
- Selection and preparation of planting material
- Planting scheme and cultivation of winter onion sets
- Features of caring for winter onion sets
- Harvesting and storage features
- Helpful hints
Features of planting onion sets before winter
Bulb harvesting dates vary from the beginning of the third decade of June to mid-July.... It all depends on the variety: onions are early-ripening, mid-ripening and late-ripening.
A properly selected seed variety also affects yield. Up to 5-8 kg of turnip is harvested from 1 m² of land. The yield depends on the type of soil, region and general care.
Benefits of autumn onion planting:
- no need to store seed;
- the cost of seeding is less than in the spring;
- after harvesting, it is possible to sow another crop;
- in the spring time is freed up for other garden work;
- it is possible to annoy unresolved bulbs in the spring.
Varieties and hybrids of winter onion sets
Suitable for winter planting varieties and hybrids of onions:
- early ripe - Bogatyrskaya power, Bessonovsky, Myachkovsky 300, Odinovets, Siberian annual, Spanish medallion F1, Skorospelka, Stuttgarter rizen;
- mid-season - Danilovsky 301, Carmen MC, Krepysh, Halzendon, Ecstasy, Tamara F1;
- late maturing - Comet, Lugansky, Rubin (red), Sturon.
When to plant onion sets before winter
Sowing times vary in different regions due to climatic conditions... The main criterion for starting planting onions on the head is a stable air temperature of + 4 ... + 6 ° С.
Important! The seeding period is calculated so that the vegetable has time to take root before frost (1.5-2 weeks), but does not have time to germinate.
When to sow onions:
- In the suburbs, as well as throughout central Russia, sevok are planted from 8 to 25 October. A more accurate date is determined based on the weather and the lunar calendar.
- In the Urals and Siberia oatmeal is embedded in the ground 1-1.5 weeks earlier, in the period from the second half of September to mid-October.
- In the Leningrad region sowing begins in the same way as in central Russia - from the beginning to the middle of the third decade of October. If onion varieties zoned for the Leningrad region are taken, the landing dates are in September.
Favorable days for landing are determined by the lunar calendar.... They are different every year. Pay attention to the phases: the planting of the winter bow is planned for the waning moon. In the new moon and full moon, seedlings are not planted. The signs of the zodiac that account for the successful planting of winter onions on the head are Virgo, Libra and Scorpio.
Preparing the soil for autumn planting
The soil for planting sevka is prepared immediately after harvest on the selected bed.
They remove plant debris, the remnants of roots. Do a deep digging on a shovel bayonet. Slightly embedded in the soil humus at the rate of 5 kg per 1 m² and potassium-phosphorus fertilizers according to the instructions. Water the garden bed with a strong solution of potassium permanganate to disinfect the soil.
Selection and preparation of planting material
The sevok for winter planting is chosen small, with a caliber of 1 cm... Such wild oats do not go into the arrow in the spring; they root and winter better.
Reference. To avoid rotting small onions, use high beds for better drainage and water flow.
Seed preparation begins with sorting... Samples of the same size are selected, without visible damage, rotten or frost-bitten seed heads are removed.
Onions are processed for disinfection in a solution of potassium permanganate (1 g per 1 l of water) or copper sulfate (3 g per 1 l of water). Immersed in a warm solution for 25 minutes, allowed to dry.
Before planting, the heads are hardened... First, soak in warm (+ 45 ... + 50 ° C) water for 10-12 minutes, then immediately dipped in ice. To stimulate root growth, the heads are soaked in a solution of "Epin" or "Kornevin".
You can resort to folk remedies for disinfection and soak the set in a solution of salt water (1 tablespoon per 1 liter of warm water) for 30 minutes or warm up the heads at a temperature of + 25 ... + 30 ° C on a battery for a day.
Planting scheme and cultivation of winter onion sets
After preparing the onion set, they begin to plant it.
The soil in the garden is leveled, clods are broken so that the earth remains loose and homogeneous... Onions grow in loamy soils. If the earth is alkaline, wood ash is added to it at the rate of 1 tbsp. per 1 m furrow. If the soil is acidic, add lime or dolomite flour (200 g per m²).
When planting, observe the crop rotation and take into account the predecessors... The most suitable crops are legumes, herbs, tomatoes, potatoes, cabbage.
Focusing on the climatic zone, weather forecast and lunar calendar, choose the landing day... Sowing begins 1.5-2 weeks before the expected frost.
The prepared arable land is divided into rows along or across.
Council. If the beds are located from north to south, the furrows are laid along the length of the bed, if from east to west - across. The onions should be warmed up by the sun on all sides.
The rows have at a distance of 15-20 cm from each other and make a depth of 4-5 cm... The sevok is laid out along the rows with an interval of 6-7 cm, slightly pressing the bottom to the ground. Sprinkle it on top with earth and slap it a little with your palms so that the bulbs are in close contact with the soil.
The garden bed is mulched to avoid freezing of wild oats. Spruce branches, mown dry grass, sawdust of deciduous trees or wood chips are taken as mulching material. Height coverings should be at least 10 cm. For the same purpose, you can use a dense non-woven material - lutrasil or agrofiber (30 g / m²).
Features of caring for winter onion sets
In the spring, after the snow melts, the mulch is moved from the rows... Further care for the sprouted onion consists in feeding, watering and loosening.
Onions are fed once every 2-3 weeks... The first feeding is done two weeks after the appearance of greens with infusion of mullein or chicken droppings.
Important! Fresh chicken droppings and manure are not used - the plants will get burned.
Two weeks later, the onions are fed with potash and phosphorus fertilizers.: "Nitrofoskoy", "Borofoskoy", potassium phosphate.
Young onions are hygrophilous... Water the seedlings so that the soil is always moist. However, an excess of moisture will negatively affect the harvest - young vegetables can rot.
Once a week, the next day after watering, the soil is loosenedbeing careful not to damage or pull out the bulbs. If necessary, thin the onion. There should be 5-6 cm between the plants. The beds are periodically weeded - weeds can clog young shoots and onion roots, and it will develop poorly.
Mulch left in the garden will shorten the time for caring for the vegetable... The grass cover does not allow moisture to evaporate, the soil on the surface always remains loose, weeds grow less.
Harvesting and storage features
Watering is stopped a month before harvest... Onions ripen and gain vitamins. When the onion feather has completely fallen into the garden and the neck is dry, it's time to harvest. Do this in dry, sunny weather. The collected heads are laid out on the garden bed and the ground is allowed to dry.
For storage, onions are removed in a dry, cool room. - basement or storage. A dry feather is cut off, the turnip is laid out in nets or baskets, braided and hung. The "grandmother's method" of storage is to hang a turnip in stockings.
Before starting planting, first of all, they are determined with the onion varietyadapted for the region, they choose a reliable manufacturer, read recommendations and reviews of the selected varieties. Then the number of seeding is calculated: 40-60 pieces are required for 1 m² of the garden. oatmeal.
Following all the stages of preparation and planting of a vegetable in the fall, a rich harvest of turnip onions is harvested. And subject to the conditions of cultivation, storage and the right choice of variety, onions will be preserved throughout the winter until the next harvest.