Rules and schemes for planting onion heads in spring
Onions are a vegetable crop suitable for both spring and autumn planting. In the spring, seedlings are used as planting material - small onion heads grown from seeds - and the seeds themselves. In the article, we will tell you whether it is possible to plant onions on the head before winter, how to grow it so that the seedlings avoid shooting and give a rich harvest.
The content of the article
- How to prepare a site for planting
- When to plant onions on the head
- What onion to plant on the head in spring
- Preparation of planting material
- How to grow onion sets per head: planting scheme and technique
- How to grow a head from seeds in one season
- Care features
- Tips and tricks from experienced gardeners
How to prepare a site for planting
For growing onions, choose a well-lit area without nearby groundwater. Preferred neutral soil acidity and light fertile soil - black soil. However, with the correct fertilization, sandy loam, loam or peat bogs are also suitable.
Onions are best grown in raised beds. This ensures a suitable water and temperature regime. The soil warms up more efficiently, and sedimentary water does not stay in the ground. Layers of compost and organic mulch provide additional soil nutrition.
When organizing the beds, they adhere to the rules of crop rotation:
- Optimal predecessors are nightshades (tomatoes, potatoes, eggplant), melons (cucumbers, zucchini, squash, pumpkin), as well as cabbage, spinach and lettuce.
- It is not recommended to plant onions where umbellates (dill, cumin, parsley, parsnips), cabbage root vegetables (turnips, radishes, radishes) and legumes (beans, peas) were previously grown.
- After growing the onions, the soil should rest from the crop for at least 3 years.
It is advisable to prepare the site in advance - in the fall or 1.5-2 months before landing. They dig up the earth, weed from weeds and apply fertilizers:
- compost (5 kg / m²);
- in the case of acidic soils - wood ash or dolomite flour (200 ml / m²);
- mineral substances - ammonium nitrate, superphosphate, potassium sulfate or "Nitroammofosku" in accordance with the instructions (20-30 g / m²).
Fertilizers are embedded to a depth of 30-40 cm, for better assimilation of nutrients, the soil is watered and then leveled with a rake.
When to plant onions on the head
The main condition for the successful cultivation of onions is the optimum temperature for planting. It is advisable that the thermometer stably be kept at + 12 ° C, and the soil warmed up at least 10 cm deep. Although the onion is considered a cold-tolerant crop, return frosts in spring will lead to shooting and harvesting will not work. If the planting time is delayed, this is fraught with a decrease in soil and air moisture, and in such conditions the onion develops more slowly.
Reference. According to popular belief, in the middle lane, the signal for planting onions is the flowering of violets and rakita.
Specific landing dates depend on the region:
- in Central Russia - mid-May;
- in the Northwest and Siberia - late May - early June;
- in the Black Earth Region, on the Black Sea coast and the North Caucasus - the first decade of April.
Which onion to plant in the spring on the head
To avoid problems, special attention is paid to the selection of seed material. A high-quality onion set should be:
- dense to the touch;
- evenly colored (dark or white spots are a sign of illness).
The sevok is sorted by size: larger specimens (22 to 30 mm in diameter) are left to obtain a feather, while small ones (15-21 mm) are ideal for growing onions per head.
Reference. Very small sevok (less than 15 mm) suitable for winter planting. If such onions are sown in spring, the harvest will be late, which is not acceptable for all regions.
Varieties and hybrids
The varietal characteristics of the seed are also of great importance. The onion heads should form before the fall frosts, therefore, for planting in the spring, it is better to choose early and mid-season varieties and hybrids:
- Centurion F1, Sturon, Red Baron, Zolotisty Semko F1 - early ripening, resistant to shooting and fungal diseases, are distinguished by high productivity and good keeping quality;
- Hercules F1, Carmen MC, Stardust - medium early, resistant to diseases and shooting;
- mid-season - Shetana, Stuttgarter Riesen, Danilovsky, Odintsovets, Red Semko F1.
Preparation of planting material
Before planting onion heads, preparatory procedures are carried out in the spring. They will help you avoid shooting and fight the most common diseases.
So that the onion planted in spring does not start up the arrow, the sevok is heated. The bulbs are kept at a temperature of + 40 ... + 45 ° C for 8-10 hours. The easiest and most affordable way to warm up is to sprinkle the seed on paper and place it on a radiator.
Soaking the onions in a fungicide solution helps to kill the spores of pathogenic fungi and increase the resistance of the set: Fitosporina-M, Planriz, Gamaira. The preparations are diluted according to the instructions, soaking usually lasts 1-2 hours.
Potassium permanganate (potassium permanganate) and birch tar also have disinfecting properties. When diluting them, it is important not to exceed the dosage - a slightly pink solution of potassium permanganate and no more than 1 tbsp. l. tar per 1 liter of water.
Important! After soaking, the onions are dried.
How to grow onion sets per head: planting scheme and technique
The bulbs are planted at a distance sufficient for their normal development and for carrying out agrotechnical works (hilling, weeding, watering). The recommended planting pattern is rows with an interval of 20-25 cm, in which the bulbs are placed 6-10 cm apart, depending on the size of the seed.
The correct planting depth is important: bulbs located too close to the surface will not receive adequate nutrition, and excessively deep ones will be difficult to develop in dense soil. As a rule, the depth of the grooves is 5-7 cm. The bulbs are planted in them, burying the shoulders (neck), and then covered with a layer of earth of 2-3 cm.
How to grow a head from seeds in one season
Growing onion seeds per head is troublesome, but feasible. The key to success is the correct choice of seed material (necessarily early varieties) and its preliminary preparation:
- Seeds are checked for germination by soaking in hot water for 15 minutes (+ 45 ... + 55 ° C).
- Quenched by placing in cold water for several minutes.
- To soften the dense shell of the seeds, they are wrapped in a damp cloth and kept for 24 hours.
- Filled with water at room temperature and placed in a cool place for 2-3 days.
- The seeds prepared in this way are dried - they are ready for sowing.
For sowing, illuminated areas with well-drained, fertilized soil are chosen, the acidity of which is closer to neutral (pH 6.5-7). Before planting, the bed is dug to the depth of the shovel bayonet.
Seeds are sown according to the scheme 45 × 3-5 cm, seeding depth - 1 cm, seeding rate - 1 g / m². So that the seedlings do not suffer from possible frost, the bed is mulched with peat and covered with a film.
Reference. Onion varieties Yukont and Golden Semko are suitable for growing a head from seeds. Their growing season is only 90 days. In areas with long and warm summers, the Kaba variety thrives. It takes 120-140 days to ripen.
With a steady heat, the seeds germinate and germinate 7-10 days after planting. After the appearance of two true leaves, they are thinned out, leaving a distance of 2-4 cm between the plants.At the stage of 4-5 leaves, thinning is repeated - weak seedlings are removed and the gap is increased to 6-8 cm.
Further care of the onion consists in loosening the soil, watering and weeding. The crop is harvested at the end of August, before the onset of heavy rains.
Onions are an unpretentious culture, but even they need proper and timely care.
During active growing season, onions watered 1-2 times a week, focusing on the condition of the soil - it should be moderately moist. As the vegetable ripens, watering is reduced to 1 time in 2 weeks to avoid excessive growth of green mass. Watering is stopped 3 weeks before harvesting.
The soil in the onion bed needs periodic loosening, since the vegetable loves light soil with good air and moisture permeability. They dig up the ground carefully and superficially so as not to damage the planting. The main thing is to disrupt the formed crust and provide oxygen access to the roots.
At least two dressings are considered mandatory for onions during the growing season:
- 20-21 days after planting, the plant needs nitrogenous fertilizers. Chicken droppings or rotted cow dung are suitable. Organic matter is diluted with water in a ratio of 1:15 or 1:10, respectively, and the garden is watered with a solution at the rate of 10 l / m².
- 3 weeks after the first feeding, mineral fertilizers are applied - 15 g / m² of potassium sulfate or ammonium nitrate. Top dressing is combined with abundant watering.
The subsequent fertilization depends on the condition of the onion. Nutrient deficiency is signaled by:
- weak growth - indicates a lack of nitrogen;
- pale feather - the plant needs potassium;
- dry bulb - lack of phosphorus.
The general rule states that at the beginning of the growing season the plant needs nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizers, and closer to the harvest time - in phosphorus-potassium fertilizers.
Pest and disease control
Onions are most susceptible to fungal diseases:
- peronosporosis - light spots on the feather;
- rust - yellow or orange lesions on the ground part of the plant;
- fusarium rot - affects the bottom of the turnip, but first manifests itself in the curvature and yellowing of the feather.
Usually, the cause of onion disease is waterlogged soil, a violation of crop rotation and fertilization rates, as well as proximity to vectors and hosts of pathogens. So, the causative agent of rust persists in fallen leaves and on shoots of poplar.
For the prevention of diseases, a popular folk remedy is used - a solution of 10 liters of water, 1 tsp. copper sulfate and 35 ml of liquid soap. The resulting mixture is sprayed with green onions every 15 days. If the disease still manifests itself, the plants affected by the fungus are isolated, and the bed is treated with fungicides - Bordeaux liquid, "Polycarbacin", "Iprodion" or "Quadris".
With insect pests (wire beetles, onion fly and onion weevil) are fighting with the help of insecticides and agrotechnical methods: timely weeding, planting carrots next door - its smell scares off the onion fly.
The onion harvesting period extends from late July to mid-September, depending on the variety planted and the climatic features of the area. More accurate than a calendar, a landmark is the state of the pen. Harvest readiness signs:
- the greens stopped growing, turned yellow, began to dry and died;
- the neck has become thinner and softer;
- when digging, it can be seen that the bulb has acquired a characteristic color for the variety.
If the plant is overexposed in the ground cooling at night, the onion will not be stored for a long time.
The bulbs are pulled out entirely with tops, and the leaves are cut off when they are completely dry, leaving a tip of 5-10 cm. Turnips need additional drying at a temperature of + 25 ... + 30 ° C for 10-14 days.
Store onions in a warm, dry place, folded in baskets or hanging from the ceiling.
Tips and tricks from experienced gardeners
Experienced gardeners have in store several secrets of how to grow a good harvest of onions:
- Since the plant does not like stagnant water, ensure good drainage. Before planting, sprinkle the bottom of the groove with dry sand mixed with ash. This will additionally deacidify the soil.
- Sort the seedlings by fractions: the smaller it is, the earlier you can plant it. Smaller bulbs are more frost-resistant.
- Onions are sown in moist furrows, so be sure to water them before planting.
- Weeds have no place in the garden, but if you forgot to weed them in time, do not pull out the weeds - this will damage the fragile bulbs. Use scissors to trim what has grown above the onion feather.
It is not difficult to grow onions on a turnip; the main thing is not to miss the optimal planting dates and provide the plants with proper care. In order not to delay the harvest, it is better to choose early ripening varieties, the growing season of which fits into the summer season of the region.