Edamame beans - origins, benefits and features
In the wake of interest in new, unusual and healthy products, a variety of legumes are gaining popularity. Among them are edamame beans, which came to us from Japan and China. There are conflicting data on their account: some call edamame the stage of maturity of soybeans, others argue that this is a special kind of beans. To understand, we propose to study the origin, the characteristics of the cultivation and preparation of the product.
The content of the article
What are Edamame Beans
Edamame is called young, unripe, which means - soybeans that did not have time to harden. Translated from Japanese, their name means "bean on a stalk." The Chinese equivalent is called mao - "hairy bob". Edamame is usually sold in pods and can be fresh or frozen.
The origin of Japanese edamame beans
The first written mentions of edamame in Japan date back to 1275 - this is a letter of thanks from a certain monk Nichiren for the beans given to the temple. It is logical to assume that the product was known to Japanese chefs long before this document appeared.
The popularity of edamame is confirmed by the fact that they were chanted in haiku (17th century) and the creation of a specialized fair in one of the districts of Tokyo (18th century).
In China, immature soy was also used in folk medicine - advice on its use can be found in the 15th century treatise "Medicines in case of disaster".
Reference. In addition to Japan and China, edamame is used in cooking in India, Malaysia and Indonesia.
In Western culture, the spread of the product began in America in the mid-19th century. In Europe, edamame became fashionable only a few years ago. For example, the most authoritative Oxford Dictionary included the term in its composition only in 2003.
How is it grown
Since edamame is not a special soybean variety, but only a certain stage of ripeness of its fruits, the cultivation technology remains unchanged:
- Soybeans prefer fertile land with a neutral or slightly acidic pH. The soil is harrowed before sowing to remove weeds and retain moisture.
- Sow in the second half of April - early May. Density - 35-40 beans per sq. m.
- Provide good illumination of the area with plantings and regular watering during the flowering period. The temperature should not be lower than + 14 ° C (optimally + 21 ... + 22 ° C).
- In the 5-6 phase, the leaves are fertilized with nitrophosphate and then watered.
- Green pods are harvested 35-40 days after sowing. Harvesting is done by hand to avoid damaging the beans.
Edamame pods should be bright green in color. Yellowed or darkened fruits indicate full ripening of the soybean.
Nutritional Facts and Benefits of Green Soybeans
The main advantage of green soybeans is their low calorie content and high protein content - 121 kcal and 12 g, respectively.
There is no gluten or cholesterol in the product, but sufficient dietary fiber (5.2 g)
100 g edamame contains:
- vitamins: A - 15 μg, beta-carotene - 175 μg, E - 0.7 mg, B1 - 0.2 mg, B2 - 0.2 mg, B3 - 0.2 mg, B4 - 56.3 mg, B5 - 0.4 mg, B6 - 0.1 mg, B9 - 311.0 μg, K - 26.7 μg, C - 6.1 mg;
- minerals: 436 mg potassium, 169 mg phosphorus, 64 mg magnesium, 63 mg calcium, 2.27 mg iron, 1.4 mg zinc, 0.8 mcg selenium
- polyunsaturated fatty acids: 361 mg omega-3 and 1794 mg omega-6
Green soybeans contain more sucrose and abscisic acid (plant hormone) than ripe beans.
Beneficial features product:
- used in the diet of patients with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, progressive kidney disease;
- Contains isoflavones that reduce the risk of cancer and osteoporosis;
- a rich source of folic acid, necessary for the formation of the nervous system in the embryo;
- phytoestrogens lower cholesterol levels;
- relieves migraine pain and during premenstrual syndrome;
- calcium and phosphorus strengthen bone tissue;
- fiber improves bowel function;
- antioxidants - isoflavones and saponins - protect against the harmful effects of free radicals;
- edamame helps to fight depression, fatigue, increases fertility in women;
- indispensable in vegetarian and weight-loss diets as a low-calorie source of complete vegetable protein.
Like any other product, edamame has contraindications and restrictions for use:
- disruptions of the endocrine system in children and adults;
- urolithiasis disease;
- colitis, ulcers and other disorders of the gastrointestinal tract;
- an allergic reaction to soy;
- Edamame is used with caution during pregnancy and lactation, as soy can disrupt the hormonal background of the mother.
Edamame contains a large amount of phytoestrogens, which, accumulating in the body, can lead to a decrease in potency in men.
It is interesting:
There are many ways to prepare edamame:
- boiling in water or steam;
- fresh use.
However, traditionally in Japan, green soybeans are served boiled or steamed. Water is salted, in some cases sugar is added. The beans are not hulled but left in the pods. In this form, they can be a snack for beer and other drinks.
The beans extracted from the pod are added to soups, salads and sandwich fillings, used as a side dish. Edamame and sugar pounded into a paste is a traditional icing for Japanese balls made from rice dough (dango).
Among the interesting dishes are hummus, soy spread, dried snacks with various spices (sea salt or spicy wasabi).
Attention! An important rule is that cooked pods are eaten immediately or frozen for long-term storage.
Edamame is a non-trivial product that brings a spicy variety to the usual diet. Young unripe soybeans have a low calorie content, a rich vitamin and mineral composition and are an alternative to meat for fasting and vegetarians. The useful properties of the product are varied, but there are also contraindications, the main of which are associated with an allergic reaction to soy and an unstable hormonal background.
Among the disadvantages of edamame is the relative rarity of such beans - they can be purchased only in large cities of Russia. The cost ranges from 200-300 rubles for 500 g of boiled-frozen product.