How chickpeas grow in nature and on the site
Chickpeas have only recently appeared on supermarket shelves, but have already won the love of those who have tried dishes from this legume plant. Previously, chickpeas or mutton peas, as chickpeas are also called, were grown only abroad. Now many farms have allocated significant areas for this valuable crop. Summer residents are also actively mastering the technology of growing chickpeas in their plots.
Read about how chickpeas grow in nature and how to grow them in the country, read the article.
The content of the article
- How chickpeas grow in nature
- How to grow chickpeas in the country, agricultural technology in the open field
- Features of growing chickpeas
How chickpeas grow in nature
Lamb peas are an annual leguminous plant with a powerful root system... It occurs naturally in regions with tropical and subtropical climates. It is considered its homeland in the Middle East, where it is spread to this day. As a cultivated plant, chickpeas are grown all over the world, while the area under crops is increasing every year in different countries.
For reference. Currently, wild chickpeas grow only on the Arabian Peninsula and in the territory of the Middle Eastern states.
During the growth period, the plant goes through four phases: from seedlings through budding and flowering to ripening. The last two are divided into tiers, as the chickpeas bloom and ripen gradually, from the lower part of the stem to the upper stem.
There are four periods from germination to the beginning of the ripening phase:
- The first one lasts 30-45 days and covers the stage from germination to budding. During this period, the plant grows green mass and lays fruits.
- The second is completed in three weeks... By the end of the period, the chickpeas reach their maximum height, finish flowering and begin fruit formation.
- The third lasts 20-25 days and ends with the final formation of fruits, which stop growing by the end of the period. This stage is characterized by maximum foliage.
- The fourth period lasts from 1 to 1.5 monthsduring which the beans are poured.
Depending on the varieties and weather and climatic conditions the growing season lasts from two to four months.
Reference. Chickpeas are a source of soluble and dietary fiber. The former remove bad cholesterol from the body, the latter stimulate intestinal activity. The glycemic index of the fruit is so low that it is recommended to use it for weight loss and in the diet of diabetics.
How to grow chickpeas in the country, agricultural technology in the open field
It is not difficult to cultivate mutton peas in a backyard: even in a continental climate, with proper agricultural technology, the plant gives good yields.
In a crop rotation, chickpeas will be an excellent predecessor and follower of winter wheat.... In agricultural farms, they are planted one after another. In summer cottages, few people grow wheat, but careful selection of neighbors is always useful - for example, garlic grows well next to lamb peas.
Do not plant chickpeas after legumes and sunflowers... In one place it is grown with a break of 4-5 years. Chickpeas tend to increase soil fertility and saturate it with nitrogen, so not only wheat and barley, but also nightshade grow well after this culture.
It is interesting. Ground chickpea peas have been used since the 18th century as a substitute for coffee.
How to plant chickpeas
The culture is resistant to droughts and drops in temperature... Therefore, it is planted in early spring, when the soil is maximally saturated with moisture.The site is chosen well-lit by the sun and not littered with rhizome perennials.
Soil cultivation technology for chickpeas
They prepare the land for cultivation in the fall, since with early sowing there is not enough time for spring work... After harvesting the predecessor, the site is plowed to a depth of 30-35 cm. Deep plowing promotes full aeration and moisture accumulation, which is important for the formation of the root system and nodules in chickpea. An excellent prevention against soil contamination will be disking 2-3 times at different angles.
If the soil is cultivated manuallycarefully select all weeds.
Attention! Harrowing is carried out in the fall, then immediately after the snow melts, crop sowing is carried out. If the snow cover was weak or melted early, re-harrowing is done before planting chickpeas.
Seed preparation and seeding rate in kg
With sufficient soil moisture, the planting material is not soaked... With a lack of moisture, the seeds are allowed to germinate within 2-3 days. Before planting, the fruits are soaked in any preparation of nodule bacteria. This will increase the germination and yield of chickpeas by 25-30%.
Seeds are planted in wet soil to a depth of 6-8 cm, in dry soil - about 15 cm... The grooves are placed at a distance of at least 30 cm from each other to facilitate weeding and loosening during plant growth. After planting, the earth is rolled up or slightly tamped so that there are no voids, otherwise the seeds will sprout for a long time and not together.
When weeds appear, they are weeded out, and the aisles are harrowed to a depth of 5-6 cm... When the rows are closed, it is no longer necessary to harrow, the green leaves of chickpea shade the soil well and prevent the weeds from rising.
Watering is carried out in moderation, avoiding waterlogging of the soil... Chickpeas tolerate a lack of moisture well, and with an excess of water they get sick. Before the emergence of shoots, the plantings are watered once every 3-5 days, and when the sprouts reach 10 cm - no more than once a week.
During the growing season, fertilizing is carried out with mineral fertilizers... Best of all, chickpeas respond to potassium-phosphorus preparations.
Important! The use of nitrogen fertilizers interferes with the development of nodules and reduces their ability to attract nitrogen from the air.
Chickpeas love clean soils, so the planting site is prepared in advance, plowing, harrowing and getting rid of weeds, especially rhizome perennials.
A continuous herbicide is used to combat soil contamination. "Tornado 540" in the period before planting or immediately after sowing. In addition, soil preparations "Simba", "Lazurit" and "Gambit" showed themselves well.
In the period from germination and until the plants reach a height of 20-25 cm, the aisles are regularly loosened and weed out any emerging weeds. Then the rows close and the chickpea's own foliage does not allow weeds to develop.
Interesting on the site:
Chickpea pests and control
Lamb peas are susceptible to infections, pests and diseases... The most common diseases are fusarium and ascochitis. In the first case, chickpeas infect a fungus that settles on plant debris and in the soil. Effective prevention will be the timely destruction of all waste after harvesting, digging and harrowing.
Ascochitis leads in some cases to the complete death of plantings... Plants get sick either from diseased seeds or from rainy weather. If signs of both diseases are found, the crops must be treated with fungicides.
- the nodule weevil eats up the green part of the leaves, making them look like thin lace;
- Chickpea mutant fly: when affected by these insects, the leaves turn yellow, curl and fall off.
Broad-spectrum insecticidal preparations are used against pests. type "Decis", "Calypso", etc.
Ripe chickpea pods become hard and light in color... If shaken, a characteristic sound is heard - dry peas roll inside. Harvesting takes place in several stages, since the chickpeas ripen gradually, starting from the lower tiers.
Chickpea yield from 1 ha
Average indicators - from 0.18 to 0.5 tons per hectare... In farms using modern agricultural techniques, the yield of chickpea reaches 0.9 t / ha.
The first harvest begins to be taken in late July - early August... The harvesting season lasts up to a month. The ripening time strongly depends on the chickpea variety (early maturing, medium or late), the timing and depth of sowing, as well as weather and climatic conditions.
How to harvest
Pods are removed from the plants, starting from the bottom of the stem... The peas are then shelled and the peas are left to air dry if necessary. At full maturity, the fruits are immediately removed for storage.
Features of growing chickpeas
For each region, varieties are selected depending on climate, soil, the possibility of return frosts and precipitation rates.
In outskirts of Moscow
Central Russia is favorable for growing chickpeas... Here, in the measure of sunny days and precipitation, the early and middle varieties have time to mature before the autumn slush.
Best of all Volzhanin 50, since it is moisture-loving and rainy spring or summer will not prevent you from getting a good harvest.
For cold regions, early maturing varieties are chosen.... Then, even having planted chickpeas in June, ripe fruits are harvested in August. Privo 1 is considered the earliest: the record holder for early maturity, drought resistance and yield. The growing season from germination to harvesting is only 45 days.
In the Krasnodar Territory
The best variety for southern regions Vector is recognized with low humidity, frequent droughts and high temperatures. It gives consistently high yields, is poorly susceptible to disease, and its nutritional value is higher than that of other varieties. For example, the protein content in fruits reaches 27%.
On sandy soils
Chickpeas are undemanding to the soil. It grows best on black soil, gray forest, chestnut soils... When cultivating on sandy or sandy loam soils, organic fertilizers are required.
The Budjak and Iranian varieties are the most resistant to poor soils, droughts and diseases. At the same time, they give rich yields and are distinguished by high quality fruits.
It is not difficult to grow chickpeas in your garden. It is unpretentious, undemanding to conditions, easily tolerates drought and low temperatures. Yields excellent yields, well kept. In cooking, chickpeas can replace peas and lentils.
The nutritional value of the legume plant is very high, it satisfies the body's need for complete protein, which in chickpea fruits is up to 25-27%. To grow a good harvest, choose the right variety and weed the beds in a timely manner. Then the chickpea harvest even from a small plot will be enough for the whole year.