Description and characteristics of chickpeas
Chickpeas, or lamb chickpeas, have been known to mankind for a long time. This leguminous crop, previously known only in the countries of Asia and Africa, is now gaining popularity in Russia. Chickpeas and flour are actively used in vegetarian cuisine, and due to their low glycemic index, chickpeas are indispensable for people with diabetes. In the article we will tell you what it is - chickpeas: legumes or cereals, what it looks like in the photo, where it grows.
The content of the article
What is chickpea
Chickpea is a large genus of plants in the legume family... It combines herbaceous and shrub plants. The most famous of these is lamb chickpeas, or chickpeas, the seeds of which are used for cooking.
Chickpeas are also called the seeds of chickpeas, from which cereals and flour are prepared.... They are widely used in cooking, boiled, fried, or baked. Because of its high protein content, chickpeas are popular with vegan and vegetarian diets. Chickpea dishes are found in the cuisines of many nations of the world.
Important! There are no differences between Uzbek, Turkish and lamb chickpeas - they are one and the same plant. Other common names for chickpea are walnuts and nohut.
What does a plant look like
The chickpea is an annual herb with an erect, less often drooping stem, covered with short glandular hairs. The plant reaches a height of 20 to 70 cm. Leaves are pinnate, with elongated oval leaves. One sheet contains 11 to 17 leaves.
Self-pollinated flowers, single, typical of leguminous plants, with small toothed stipules. There are 5 petals: the upper, or sail, two side ones - oars, and two lower ones, fused together, called a boat. The petals, depending on the variety, are yellow or various shades of pink - from pale to purple. Stamens 10, pistil 1. In the photo - a flower of chickpeas.
Fruit - bean rhombic, less often oval, yellow or purple... The beans contain 1-3 seeds of a round shape, resembling the head of a ram or an owl. Seeds, depending on the variety, from light yellow to dark, almost black, with a diameter of 5 to 15 mm. The mass of 1000 seeds ranges from 150-300 g.
The appearance of chickpea varieties differs slightly:
- brown - 45-70 cm high, with red-purple flowers and brown seeds in angular beans;
- yellow - erect, 30-50 cm high, with yellow flowers and yellow-beige seeds;
- red - powerful compact plants up to 30 cm high, resistant to drought and high humidity, red-brown and terracotta seeds;
- white - up to 45 cm high, with powerful shoots, pale pink flowers, seeds in rounded beans, white;
- black - 30-60 cm high, pink flowers, seeds of a rich dark color with a bright spicy smell and pronounced taste.
Also, chickpea varieties differ externally.... In Russia, according to the State Register of Breeding Achievements, 25 varieties of chickpea are allowed for cultivation, of which 2 are used as a fodder base for farm animals.
These are legumes or grains
Botanically, chickpeas are legumes. However in terms of agriculture, it is both a grain and a legume cropbelonging to a separate group of legumes. The fruits of these plants are harvested for use exclusively with dry grains. This group also includes pigeon peas, edible lentils and cow peas.
Reference. The resulting seeds after passing through all stages of cleaning belong to cereals. Chickpea flour is also obtained from chickpea seeds by grinding.
Where and how it grows in nature
Mutton chickpeas grow in warm regions with dry climates... Turkey and Syria are considered homeland (hence the common name for chickpeas). It does not grow in the wild, it is an exclusively cultivated plant, bred by breeding methods from netted chickpea (lat.Cicer reticulatum). Grown in many countries of the world, the largest share is in South and Front Asia.
Chickpea seeds - food with high nutritional value... It is a source of healthy carbohydrates, zinc, folic acid, polyunsaturated fats. It contains more than 80 useful micro and macro elements.
Chemical composition and BZHU fluctuate depending on the variety and type of chickpea. In general, it is very rich in vitamins and chemical elements necessary for the body. In terms of their total composition, chickpeas overtake many cereals and legumes.
Important! Chickpea seeds contain lysine, an essential amino acid necessary for the proper functioning of the body.
Calorie content and BZHU
There are 364 kcal per 100 g of dried seeds... 100 g of boiled products - 127 kcal.
100 g dry chickpea seeds:
- proteins - 19-30 g;
- fat - 6-7 g;
- carbohydrates - 50-60 g.
For 100 g of boiled cereal:
- proteins - 8-9 g;
- fat - 1-2 g;
- carbohydrates - 18-27 g.
Interesting on the site:
Vitamins and other substances
Of the fat-soluble vitamins, boiled chickpeas contain A, beta-carotene, E and K. Of the water-soluble vitamins C and group B:
- vitamin A - 1 mcg;
- beta-carotene - 16 mcg;
- vitamin E - 0.4 mg;
- K - 4 μg;
- C - 1.3 mg;
- B1 - 0.1 mg;
- B2 - 0.1 mg;
- B3 - 0.5 mg;
- B4 - 42.8 mg;
- B5 - 0.3 mg;
- B6 - 0.1 mg;
- B9 - 172 mcg.
The mineral composition of boiled chickpeas is as follows:
- potassium - 291 mg;
- phosphorus - 168 mg;
- calcium - 49 mg;
- magnesium - 48 mg;
- sodium - 7 mg;
- iron - 2.9 mg;
- zinc - 1.5 mg;
- manganese - 1 mg;
- copper - 0.4 mg;
- selenium - 3.7 mcg.
- methionine - 3.11 g;
- tryptophan - 1.10 g;
- lysine - 7.65 g;
- isoleucine - 6.81 g
Chickpea is a leguminous crop widely cultivated in Asian countries. It is appreciated for its rich vitamin and mineral composition. Food chickpeas are easier for the body to digest than other cereals and have a low calorie content, which is why they belong to dietary products.