The most popular chickpea varieties - description and characteristics
Chickpea mutton (sometimes called nokhut, bladder, Turkish, Volga or walnut peas) is a legume of the legume family, grown in industrial volumes in many countries of the Middle East, Central Asia and America. Chickpea seeds have a variety of medicinal properties. And its tops, which are high in protein, are used for livestock feed. In the ranking of legumes eaten by the population of our planet, it ranks third, right after peas and beans.
Undemanding soil quality and the ability to withstand short-term frosts down to -10 ° C allow Russian plant breeders to grow this crop not only in the Stavropol Territory, the North Caucasus and Krasnodar Territory, but also in the climatic conditions of the middle zone and Western Siberia. In recent years, this valuable food crop, capable of enriching the diet of Russians with high-quality vegetable proteins and fats, has increasingly appeared on the tables of our compatriots.
The content of the article
Varieties of chickpea by color
The numerous varieties of chickpea can be divided into several groups, depending on the color of the seeds.
Interesting. According to Rosstat, in 2018 more than 827,000 hectares were allocated for chickpea sowing in Russia. During the year, the sown area of this crop increased by 355,000 hectares, which is 71.6%.
Red-brown peas (seeds), 1-2 pieces, are located in round-angular beans. They ripen on compact annual bushes that are not afraid of drought and dry winds, the height of which varies within 45-70 cm.
The growing season is 90 to 100 days. During flowering, red-purple flowers appear on the bushes. The weight of one thousand fruits is 340 g.
Seeds with high nutritional value are often used to make chickpea flour.
Plants producing light beige seeds are early maturing crops with a short vegetative period of 80 to 90 days... On medium-sized, highly branched bushes, beans appear, containing two seeds.
All yellow varieties are characterized by high resistance to lodging, drought, fungal infections such as root rot, as well as to the effects of dry winds.
The seeds are fried, boiled, used to prepare delicious side dishes.
Compact bushes, producing reddish fruits, have a rather powerful structure. Their botanical characteristics are almost identical to those of other chickpea varieties.
These plants, rarely suffering from insect pests and diseases, are endowed with the ability to endure both drought and high soil moisture.
Low - up to 45 cm - bushes are characterized by the presence of powerful shoots. Peduncles are located at a height of at least 20 cm from ground level. This makes it easier to care for the plants, since it relieves the grower of the need for pinching and cutting off the lower shoots in case of high soil moisture. In beans, 1-2 white seeds ripen.
Plants are not very susceptible to pests, diseases and bad weather conditions.
The botanical characteristics of all varieties of black chickpea are largely the same as those of other varieties. The only radical difference is the dark color of the peas, which, in addition, have a pronounced spicy aroma and a richer taste.
The varieties that grow in India are characterized by the green coloration of peas.
Important. According to the classification, taking into account the appearance of the seeds, chickpeas are divided into two types: desi and kabuli. Kabuli-type varieties bear fruit (beans) covered with a thin, light shell, which is separated from the seed with great difficulty. When preparing food, it is recommended to use them as a whole. Desi-type ram pea seeds, colored brown or black, have a very thick shell. They are usually used to make flour.
The main types of chickpeas by ripening rate
There is a classification that allows you to group chickpea varieties depending on the length of the growing season and seed size.
Turkish varieties peas depending on the growing season, they are divided into:
- early maturing (from 75 to 90 days);
- mid-season (from 90 to 115 days);
- late ripening (from 115 to 140 days).
Among the most popular early ripening varieties is Galileo, obtained by individual selection from the Belage variety.
- Intensive starting growth - the period from the moment of sowing to the appearance of full shoots is from 7 to 9 days.
- The growing season is 95-98 days.
- High (up to 5 points) resistance to spring frosts, soil and air drought.
- Intensive development of nodules.
- High (from 0 to 5%) resistance to most fungal and viral diseases (including powdery mildew, rust, septoria, bacteriosis, anthracnose, fusarium, etc.).
- The presence of high (up to 70 cm) erect bushes. The lower beans are attached to them at a height of 17 to 23 cm from the soil level.
- Resistant to stem lodging. The beans are not susceptible to dropping and cracking.
- Beige color of seeds with a round or angular shape and weak ribbing.
- Suitable for growing on all types of soil.
- Suitable for mechanized harvesting. Leaves falling off when the fruit ripens greatly facilitate threshing.
- Average yield (on the territory of the Saratov region) - up to 9.7 c / ha. In the Krasnodar Territory, the maximum yield is 22.7 c / ha.
The authors of the Galileo variety recommend it for cultivation in the climatic conditions of the Saratov region.
It is interesting:
This group of varieties is the most numerous.
Obtained by the method of individual selection from a mixture of varietal samples of the VIR collection, recommended for cultivation in the Saratov region. Author - Aistov Vyacheslav Nikolaevich.
The variety is characterized by:
- Tall (38 to 56 cm) semi-erect bushes with large leaves and white flowers.
- Lack of anthocyanin coloration.
- Beige fruit with medium ribbing and varied (round or angular) shape.
- Average (80 to 102 days) duration of the growing season.
- Good drought resistance.
- The average yield is up to 16.8 kg / ha.
- The presence of large seeds (weight 100 pcs. - from 325 to 405 g), containing up to 24% protein.
- Immunity to diseases - during the period of state tests, not a single case of defeat was recorded.
Variety Krasnokutskiy 36
Cultivated since 1993, it has not lost its popularity among Russian vegetable growers to this day.
- Significant (up to 60 cm) bushes height.
- Mid-ripeness - the duration of the growing season does not exceed 90 days.
- The arrangement of the lower beans at a level of 25 cm from the ground.
- The presence of not very large (the weight of a thousand pieces is 280-300 g) yellow-pink seeds, which are round in shape and contain from 25 to 28% protein.
- High resistance to fusarium and moderate immunity to ascochitosis.
- High drought resistance.
- Stable (at least 20 c / ha) yield in the Volga region. Under favorable weather conditions, it can exceed 35 kg / ha.
Originator - breeder V.V. Balashov The variety was bred by individual selection from a hybrid obtained by crossing a large-seeded Syrian sample with the Volgogradsky 10 variety.
- Tall (up to 70 cm) compact erect shrubs with pubescent stems, oval leaves and white single flowers of medium size.
- The presence of slightly angular beans with a beak-shaped tip, completely devoid of ribbing and painted in yellow tones. Each bean contains from 1 to 2 round, smooth, white seeds (a thousand pieces weigh from 280 to 356 g).
- The average ripening period is from 72 to 101 days.
- Productivity up to 12 kg / ha.
- Lower (in comparison with other varieties) drought resistance.
- Excellent immunity to diseases and pests.
- Good resistance to lodging, bean cracking and seed shedding.
- High palatability of fruits.
The use of this promising variety in the territory of the Russian Federation was allowed in 2011.
Fetal size classification
According to the classification dividing chickpea varieties by seed size, they are:
- small-grain - 1000 seeds weight - less than 200 g;
- medium-grained - the mass of 1000 grains - from 200 to 350 g;
- large-seeded - the mass of 1000 seeds is more than 350 g.
A characteristic feature of the Rosanna variety is a higher yield than that of varieties with larger seeds. The fruits are medium, the weight of one thousand pieces is from 290 to 310 g.
Variety of Ukrainian selection (type of kabuli), recommended for cultivation in the North Caucasus and the Crimean peninsula.
- Half-stem shape of bushes up to 60 cm high.
- Light green color of stems and leaves.
- The presence of single white flowers and large beans with a short spout, the lowest of which are attached at a level of 23-25 cm from ground level.
- Beige color of seeds with an intermediate shape and wrinkled surface, containing up to 5% oil and 28% protein.
- Average (up to 100 days) ripening period.
- Productivity up to 20 kg / ha.
- High drought tolerance.
- Relative resistance to fusarium and ascochitosis.
The classic example of a highly productive large-fruited chickpea is the Galileo variety. Its main advantage is the high quality of the grains: leveled, large, highly culinary and contain up to 26% protein.
The natural weight (this is the name for the mass of 1 liter of grain, expressed in grams) of seeds of the Galileo variety is 835-852 g. The mass of 1000 grains is from 360 to 420 g.
It is interesting:
High yield, undemanding to the type of soil, resistance to adverse weather conditions, excellent taste of fruits that benefit the body - these are the main factors underlying the growing popularity of this crop.