What to do with holes in cabbage leaves
Holes in cabbage leaves signal that pests have appeared in the garden. Insects tend to multiply quickly and are capable of completely destroying plantings in a short time. The article will tell you what to do if cabbage leaves are in holes, what is the reason for this phenomenon and what folk remedies to use.
The content of the article
Why are cabbage all in holes - the main reasons
Holes in cabbage leaves can be caused by hail, however in good weather conditions this is a clear sign of pest damage to the crop.
First, several small holes appear, then they grow, they become more, as a result, the leaves look like a sieve.
Pests that infect leaves:
- Slugs and snails... Their habitual environment is shade and humidity. They appear in beds with thickened plantings and stagnant water. Large areas of leaves are immediately consumed. Gnawed edges, large holes and silvery traces of dried mucus will be noticeable.
- Cruciferous fleas - small black insects about 3 mm. They multiply en masse in dry and hot weather, especially where there are a lot of weeds. They feed on young seedlings. Many pinholes are left on the leaves. The peak of activity is in May.
- Cruciferous bugs - variegated beetles up to 1 cm long. They pierce a leaf with their proboscis and feed on juice. There will be many small holes with yellow edging on the leaf plate. They attack cabbage from May to June in dry weather.
- Caterpillars of cabbage scoop and the larvae of cabbage whites. Favorable environment - heat and drought. The edges and bottom of the sheet are washed out. In case of mass distribution, the leaf is completely skeletonized (only veins remain).
Cabbage gets its nourishment from the soil and through photosynthesis. Leaf damage slows down crop development and can cause fungal diseases... It is advisable to inspect the plants more often. Insects are not always visible, but if holes appear on the leaves, you should immediately start pest control.
Attention! Insects not only eat leaves, but also carry diseases.
What to do if cabbage leaves are in holes
By the type of damaged leaf, the condition of the garden and taking into account weather conditions, you can approximately determine the type of pest... Rain, high humidity and wet ground - it is worth looking for slugs, in the heat on dry beds - caterpillars and small insects. Check the topsoil and both leaf surfaces.
If there is little damage, cabbage is treated with home remedies that are prepared on their own. Large pests are harvested by hand.
With moderate lesions use biologicals. These are new generation insecticides that are safe for humans and do not accumulate in plants. They act more slowly than chemical agents. The latter are used in critical situations, with a massive invasion of pests. The instructions always indicate the allowable interval between processing and harvesting.
Attention! Insects become accustomed to the effects of chemicals. Every year it is necessary to alternate funds with different active ingredients.
Insecticides approved for use in subsidiary plots:
- biological - "Fitoverm", "Lepidocid", "Biostop", "Bitoxibacillin";
- chemical - "Decis Profi", "Pochin", "Aktara", "Karate", "Ivermek", "Fox".
Cabbage processed in the morning (when there is still dew on the leaves) or in the evening (after 18.00)... Soap is added to make the water solution stick to the leaves. Chemicals are diluted without sediment, and herbal infusions are filtered.
Algorithm of actions if on Chinese cabbage holes appeared:
- Examine the plants and determine the type of pest.
- Depending on the degree of defeat, choose a suitable means of struggle. In doubtful situations, drugs are used for a group of insects.
- Create an unfavorable environment for the pest: clear the area of weeds, loosen the soil or mulch the beds, water and spray the plants in dry weather.
- Treat cabbage with pest repellent. Spray all plants, even those with intact leaves. If it rains in 4-5 hours, then process again.
- Repeat 2-3 times with an interval of 5-8 days.
- Combine measures to combat and repel insects.
How to process - folk remedies
Folk remedies are effective in the early stages of culture development, as preventive treatments, for small cultivated areas and at the first signs of pests. The main goal is to scare away insects and make cabbage leaves inedible for them.
Against slugs and snails:
- Mustard and ammonia. In 1 liter of water, dilute 2 tbsp. l. ammonia and 15 g of dry mustard. The agent works in contact with the pest, so the cabbage is sprayed late at night.
- Soda solution. On a grater, grind 20 g of laundry soap and dilute in 10 liters of water. Add 3 tbsp. l. soda ash. Stir until dissolved. Spray cabbage in the morning so that the product is completely dry by evening.
Against cruciferous flea beetles and bedbugs:
- Birch tar. It is difficult to dissolve in water, so it is first mixed with liquid soap. 1 tsp tar and 1 tsp. the soap is stirred and dissolved in 1 liter of warm water. The leaves are sprayed in the morning.
- Dandelion infusion. Flowers, together with leaves and roots, are washed and chopped in a meat grinder. 500 g of the mass is diluted in 10 liters of water. Add 1 tsp. liquid soap and stir. The leaves are processed in the morning or evening.
- Soap solution. Rub 300 g of laundry soap coarsely and dissolve in 10 liters of warm water. You can take liquid soap in a volume of 400 ml. Leaves are processed in the morning.
Against the caterpillars of the cabbage scoop and whiteworm:
- Vinegar. In 10 liters of water, dilute 1 tbsp. l. vinegar essence (70%) or 1 tbsp. vinegar (9%). Spray cabbage in the evening.
- Ash infusion. To 10 liters of water add 2 tbsp. ash and 1 tbsp. l. tar shampoo. Stir and insist for a day. Before processing the plants, the solution is shaken well.
Note! Any products with vinegar, ammonia, tar, soda and soap, as well as herbal infusions with a pungent odor, are effective for simultaneously combating different types of pests.
What else can you do
It is rational to combine plant processing with manual collection of insects (if there are few of them) and the placement of traps.
- Half of the watermelon is peeled from the pulp. 3-4 holes are cut out in the peel 1-3 cm from the edge. In the evening they put it on the site upside down. By morning, there will be several dozen slugs under it, which are easy to collect. Watermelon peel is used for 2-3 nights and then changed to a new one.
- In a plastic bottle or container, cut out 2-3 rectangular windows 3-4 cm above the bottom. The lower part is not cut off, but folded back like a slope. Beer is poured into the container and installed on the site. On the slopes, the slugs will fall into the bottle and die.
Traps are not set on cabbage beds, but next to plants, which have tough leaves and slugs do not eat them.
Sticky traps are made for cruciferous fleas... Resin, grease or glue for mice is applied to dense substrates and laid out between the bushes. The second option - the substrate is attached to a stick and waving it, touching the cabbage bushes. Fleas jump out and stick.
Cruciferous bugs are distracted from the beds with trompe l'oeil... White paper is soaked in cabbage juice and attached to the fence. Insects bypass the beds and strive for paper with a strong scent of cruciferous plants, from where they are shaken off into a jar of kerosene. Store bed bug traps are placed in the aisles.
White color for white butterflies is a signal that the place for laying is already occupied by a competitor.... White disposable cups or bows made of dense white bags are attached to branches or sticks and set between the plants. The stick should be a few centimeters above the cabbage bush.
Interesting on the site:
Insects hibernate in the topsoil and plant debris. From early spring they begin to feed on weeds and then move to seedlings.
The purpose of preventive work is to create the most unfavorable conditions for the life and reproduction of crop pests.
A set of preventive measures:
- Compliance with crop rotation. Cabbage is planted after beans, cereals, root crops and cucumbers - no more than 2-3 years in a row in one place.
- Competent agricultural technology... Do not thicken the planting, maintain the moisture optimum for the crop.
- In the fall, loosen the topsoil and clean the area from plant debris.
- In the spring, during planting, the soil is treated with wood ash, tobacco dust, a mixture of soda and pepper, mulched with needles.
- Companion plants are planted, the aroma of which scares off pests: marigolds, fennel, calendula, dill.
- A week after planting in open ground, the seedlings are sprayed with soapy water. Herbal infusions, ash solution, water with the addition of vinegar, ammonia or essential oils (lemon, orange, lavender, fir) are used. Spraying is repeated every 2 weeks, even if there are no signs of pest infestation.
- The beds and the land around are cleaned of weeds. Watering at the root alternate with sprinkling.
Leaves of cabbage in a hole are a sign of pest damage. In the fight against a small number of insects, folk remedies will help: homemade traps, soil cultivation and spraying with solutions with a pungent odor.
Cabbage accumulates harmful substances, so chemical insecticides are used only in critical situations. It is more rational to prevent the invasion of pests than to deal with them later.