What to do if the flowers of the eggplant in the greenhouse fall and why is this happening?
Eggplant is a vegetable crop that requires special care. She is very picky and reacts quickly to changes in the environment. In a greenhouse, it is easier to create an optimal microclimate for eggplants, so here leaves and ovaries fall less often. If this happens, it is important to understand the reasons that led to this, and quickly eliminate them so as not to lose the crop. Consider why the flowers and leaves of eggplant in the greenhouse fall and what to do about it.
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Why do eggplants shed flowers and leaves in a greenhouse
There are many reasons that lead to the falling of leaves and flowers in eggplants. Let's consider in detail the main ones.
Lack of pollination
Most often, flowers are shed from vegetables grown in the greenhouse due to a lack of pollination. Eggplant is a self-pollinating plant, but moving pollen from one bush to another requires wind, which is not in the greenhouse. Non-pollinated flowers do not form ovaries, they fade, dry up and fall off.
Another reason why pollination does not take place is the loss of the ability of pollen to fertilize. This happens due to the inappropriate temperature in the greenhouse - the pollen becomes sterile and does not germinate. Optimum values for good pollination are + 20 ... + 30 ° С.
To get an excellent eggplant harvest, it is important to strictly monitor the microclimate in the greenhouse, because any changes in environmental parameters immediately affect the health of the crop.
So that the flowers do not fall off and the yield does not decrease, in addition to temperature, the following parameters are controlled:
- Air humidity. Plants have very heavy pollen. When it damp, the flowers come off, which greatly affects the amount of the crop. The optimum moisture content is not more than 65%.
- Drafts. A strong draft during ventilation is enough stress for the plant, as a result of which it loses its inflorescences.
- Lack of lighting. Eggplant is a light-loving crop and requires direct sunlight to grow well. Therefore, it is advisable to grow vegetables in glass greenhouses, which, unlike film and polycarbonate ones, do not interfere with the penetration of sunlight.
For cultivation in a greenhouse, varieties and hybrids of Robin Hood, Bullheart F1, Purple Miracle F1 are suitable, which are easier to tolerate lack of lighting.
Lack of nutrients
Fallen flowers and leaves signal a deficiency or excess in the soil of mineral elements such as boron, nitrogen, phosphorus or potassium... These substances are required by eggplant for growth and fruiting.
With boron deficiency, stems and leaves become brittle, crop growth slows down, and flowers, fruits and leaves become deformed.
Eggplant needs nitrogen when gaining green mass: the larger the leaves, the more the plant absorbs sunlight. However, with an excess of the element, the bush actively grows, which especially adversely affects the formation of flowers.
Attention! Over-saturation of the soil with any of the mineral elements leads to wilting and dropping of leaves and flowers.
Potassium promotes the formation of large buds and fruits, and its shortage causes the fall of inflorescences and leaves. When there is enough phosphorus in the ground, eggplants get maximum strength and growth.
Improper care also leads to the fact that the eggplant sheds leaves and flowers.
The main mistake that many gardeners make is improper watering. Since the roots of the culture are very sensitive to temperature changes, only warm water is used for irrigation.
The second mistake, due to which the bush loses leaves and inflorescences, is irregular watering... Strong drying or waterlogging of the soil must not be allowed.
Needs strict control and acidity. The crop prefers neutral soils. In acidic soil, eggplant poorly forms ovaries, and some of the leaves and flowers will fall off. Optimum soil acidity for plants is 6–6.5 pH.
The greatest threat to eggplants during the flowering period is the spider mite. Its activity weakens the culture and leads to poor ovary formation, which affects the quality and quantity of the crop.
It is simple to understand that a pest has appeared on the plant: the leaves are covered with a marble pattern and a cobweb on the back. If you do not take immediate action, the tick will destroy all plantings.
The first thing that needs to be done if the leaves and flowers of the eggplant begin to fall off is to exclude all violations of the rules of agricultural technology and examine the bushes, identifying possible pests. If traces of their vital activity are found, the plants are treated with insecticides ("Fufanon" or "Fitoverm")carefully following the instructions on the package.
If there are no traces of pests, the bushes are sprayed with 0.05% boric acid solution... This treatment will stimulate the formation of ovaries and flowers.
Important! Spraying with boric acid cannot be carried out if the leaves and flowers fall off immediately after feeding the eggplants with boron.
If the flowers have fallen off due to lack of pollination, it is carried out by hand using a brush or cotton swab. You can attract pollinating insects by placing containers of sweet water in the greenhouse.
If it is not possible to provide plants with favorable conditions for pollination, ovary stimulants are used ("Bud", "Ovary", "Ivin", etc.). To prevent the pollen from drying out and sticking together, the peduncles are regularly shaken.
Eggplant shedding leaves and flowers due to lack of light and heat, feed 0.07% calcium nitrate solution... The tool is applied at the root.
If the reason for dropping leaves and the absence of ovaries lies in the excess nitrogen in the soil, apply phosphorus-potassium fertilizer or ash (1.5-2 tbsp. Per 1 m²).
Weakened plants that have undergone any type of stress (drafts, lack of light, pest attacks) are treated with immunomodulators to improve immunity, such as "Epin-Extra" or "Ecosil".
In order not to have to save eggplants from death, we must not forget about preventive measures:
- periodic replacement of the top layer of soil in the greenhouse;
- liming if the earth is acidic;
- planting bushes at a distance of at least 60 cm so that the leaves do not darken each other;
- temperature control in the greenhouse;
- neat, draft-free ventilation of the greenhouse;
- air humidity control;
- irrigation of plants during the flowering period, 2 times a week, 12 liters per 1 m²;
- regular pinching of the bushes so that the fruits receive light.
During the flowering period, plants are given twice as much phosphorus and potassium as during the growth period. Twice, with a break of 10 days, foliar dressing is carried out from a 0.05% solution of boric acid and 0.01% - magnesium sulfate.
There are many nuances in the cultivation of eggplant, but strict adherence to the recommended rules of agricultural technology is the key to obtaining a large and high-quality harvest. If a plant has flowers and leaves falling, first of all, they check the regularity of watering, the correctness of top dressing, the microclimate in the greenhouse and the presence of pests.
If you correct errors in care, the culture will recover.