Features of planting eggplants in open ground
Eggplant contains vitamins A, B, C, trace elements calcium, magnesium, fluorine, iron. Eating this vegetable lowers cholesterol levels and strengthens the immune system. In order not to look for fresh eggplants in the store, many grow them on their own plot. The vegetable requires care and adherence to basic agrotechnical rules, but the main condition for success is to choose the right variety and follow the planting rules.
In this article, we will tell you how to plant eggplants in open ground and reveal the secrets of a rich harvest.
The content of the article
- What types of eggplant are suitable for growing outdoors
- Cooking the garden
- Growing from seeds
- Growing from seedlings
- Landing in open ground
- Collection and storage
What types of eggplant are suitable for growing outdoors
For sowing in open ground, cold-resistant and unpretentious varieties are usually chosen. The plant should have strong immunity to sudden changes in the weather. The following varieties and hybrids are suitable for open ground:
- Diamond... Compact bushes reach a height of 50-60 cm. The weight of the vegetable varies from 120 to 160 g, the length is about 15 cm. The peel is glossy, rich in dark purple color. The pulp is green, without bitterness.
- Vera. An early ripening variety ripens 110-120 days after the first shoots appear. The height of the bush is 70 cm, weight is about 200-250 g. The variety is universal in use, suitable for preparing stuffed, baked and stewed dishes.
- Bourgeois f1. The unpretentious and cold-resistant hybrid has a strong immunity to diseases and pests. Plant height 1.5 m, fruit weight 400-600 g. White pulp, not bitter.
- Black opal... The popular variety Black Opal is distinguished by its elongated cylindrical fruits. Eggplant weight about 200 g, length 20-25 cm. The peel is dense, glossy. The pulp is light beige, with a pleasant taste.
- Alekseevsky... Plant height 70 cm, vegetable weight 100-140 g. Cylindrical shape, slightly pointed to the tips. The Alekseevsky variety is distinguished by its stable high yield and unpretentiousness.
Important! When choosing seeds, trust trusted agricultural companies. When buying, pay attention to the integrity of the packaging, the expiration date of the seed.
Cooking the garden
Eggplants are planted on loose and fertile soil. The culture prefers a mixture of loamy and sandy loam soils, windless beds located far from groundwater. The eggplant bed is prepared in two stages.
In mid-October, the beds are cleared of plant debris, debris and weeds. Dig up the soil on the handle of a shovel and level it with a rake. Dry manure is suitable for fertilization - during the winter it will saturate the earth with nutrients.
In the spring
After the snow melts, the beds are dug up again, breaking large clods of earth with a shovel. Fertilize with vermiculite - a mineral that saturates the soil with vitamins and minerals. Aisles are made, the size of which depends on the type of eggplant.
The classic landing pattern is 60x60. A mixture of dry lime and wood ash is introduced into the soil with high acidity.
Growing from seeds
It is advisable to sow eggplants with seeds in warm regions with a temperate climate without sudden temperature changes. After purchase, the seeds are inspected for external defects. Speckled or otherwise damaged specimens are removed.
Features of preparation for growing
The first stage of preparation is a germination test. The seeds are placed in a jar of salted water and stirred.The seeds that have sunk to the bottom are alive and suitable for planting.
The second stage of preparation is disinfection. It is carried out with the help of aloe juice, a weak solution of potassium permanganate or Bordeaux liquid. The seeds are dipped in the solution for 15-20 minutes, taken out and dried. Disinfection strengthens the immunity of the future plant, stimulates development.
Important! For best germination, seeds are germinated - wrapped for 2-3 days in a damp cloth and removed to a warm place. As soon as the first shoots appear, the material is ready for planting in open ground.
Growing from seedlings
For seedlings, prepare a container and soil. The containers are wooden boxes, plastic cups, flower pots. The container is thoroughly washed and wiped with a dry, clean towel. The land is taken from the garden or in the store. Clean soil with neutral acidity is suitable for seedlings. For reliability, before planting, it is disinfected with Bordeaux liquid.
How to sow seedlings:
- Soil is poured into the container and grooves are made at a distance of 15-20 cm from each other.
- A little water is poured into each and 2-3 disinfected seeds are placed.
- Sprinkle with earth on top and watered again.
- The next watering is in 10 days.
Seedling care rules
For seedlings, you need 10-12 hours of daylight and a warm place. If the daylight hours are short, backlighting with fluorescent lamps is organized. Water the seedlings as the soil dries up, use water at room temperature. To accelerate growth, two weeks after planting, the Kornevin stimulator is introduced. It will accelerate the development and strengthen the immune system of eggplants.
Fertilize seedlings with mineral and organic fertilizers. They use liquid bird droppings, herbal infusion, superphosphate, ammonium nitrate. Fertilizers improve the taste of vegetables, protect against seedling diseases.
Important! Before planting, the seedlings are hardened - placed in the freezer for an hour for 3-4 days. Hardening helps the plant to quickly adapt to external climatic conditions. The procedure is mandatory for Siberia and the Urals.
After 20-25 days, the eggplant seedlings are transplanted into a larger container - they dive. The plant has a developed root system, which over time requires more and more space. If eggplants are not dived in time, they will become lethargic and weak.
Landing in open ground
When eggplant is planted. They begin to plant eggplants in open ground in late April-early May, after the last spring frosts. They prepare the beds, make grooves. Sprouts are placed in each and the base of the stem is sprinkled with loose earth and ground crumbs. To impart looseness to the ground, add dry sawdust or river sand.
The recommended planting scheme for compact plants is 60x60, for tall plants - 70x80. In the first week, the bushes are covered with dense polyethylene, it protects still fragile plants from winds, rains and fogs. After 5-7 days, the plastic caps are removed.
Interesting! The best predecessors for planting crops are cabbage, carrots, beets, herbs, legumes. It is not recommended to plant eggplants after tomatoes, peppers, potatoes. A vegetable is grown in the same place for no more than two seasons in a row.
The quantity and quality of the crop directly depends on compliance with the rules of outdoor care. It should be systematic to provide the plant with nutrients and moisture, to protect against diseases and pests.
The beds are watered every 5-7 days, about 1 liter is spent on one bush. If the summer is hot and rainy, then the amount of moisture is reduced. Water in the morning or evening to avoid sunburn.
The jet is directed at the root, protecting the stems and leaves. Otherwise, moisture on the plant will lead to burns, the development of fungus and viral infections. For convenience, a drip irrigation system is used. Water is consumed sparingly, it goes directly to the root.
The beds are fertilized every 10-15 days, organic substances and mineral complexes are introduced. The development of the plant is favorably influenced by liquid manure, urea, ash, Bordeaux liquid.
Gardeners use the preparations "Kimira", "Zdraven", "Magic Leica". Before fertilizing, the soil is watered abundantly. Too little or too much fertilizer damages the eggplant. Therefore, it is important to follow the instructions.
Protection against diseases and pests
Diseases and pests arise from improper care, non-compliance with crop rotation rules, high humidity and hot weather. Late blight, black leg, root rot, powdery mildew are distinguished from diseases; of pests - spider mites, aphids and whiteflies.
For prevention, they are sprayed with milk serum and iodine, watering with an ash solution. For treatment, the drugs "Maxim", "Oksikhom", "Quadris" are used.
Tall varieties of eggplants need a garter - they use wooden stakes driven into the ground and thin strips of fabric. No need to tie knots on the plant, just wrap the stem once and make a knot around the peg.
The garter is needed so that the stem and shoots do not break under the weight of ripe fruits.
Loosening and weeding
Loosening and weeding improves the quality of the soil, making it lighter and more loose. The beds are loosened once a week, before watering. Loosening depth - no more than 7 cm.
Weeding includes hilling bushes and removing weeds. Weed grass contributes to the appearance of insect pests, so it is important to get rid of it in time and maintain a healthy microflora of the beds. Especially a lot of weeds appear after dew and rain.
Collection and storage
Eggplants are harvested one month after flowering. The fruits become elastic and resilient, acquire a rich purple color, and a glossy effect appears. In mature eggplants, the stem is bright green. You cannot overexpose the crop - eggplant acquire a bitter taste. Cut off the fruit with garden shears.
Store eggplants in a cool basement or cellar for one month. The crop is not washed, put in dry wooden boxes and covered with newspaper. Vegetables with external damage are eaten immediately after harvest.
Interesting! Eggplants are suitable for preparing vegetable stews, salads and soups. They serve as an ideal base for stuffing, combined with meat and fish fillings. Housewives canned and pickle vegetables, add garlic, horseradish, pepper to pickles.
Planting eggplants in the ground does not require special knowledge and training. The process begins with the preparation of seed - purchase and disinfection of seeds, germination and hardening. Eggplants are planted in spacious and warm beds, watered as the soil dries. From fertilizers, organic fertilizers and mineral complexes are used.
The maturity of vegetables is determined by a glossy purple color and a green stalk. Harvest is used to prepare healthy and tasty salads, snacks, side dishes.