How and from what to sprout potatoes before planting
Germination of planting material is one of the mandatory procedures for cultivating potatoes. The event allows one to reject low-quality seeds, calibrate in size and weight, accelerate the formation of stolons and tubers, and prevent the development of viral and fungal diseases.
The article will tell you what methods and means will help to germinate potatoes for planting correctly.
The content of the article
- Why sprout potatoes before planting
- Selection of tubers and preparation of potatoes
- Germination methods
- How to sprout potatoes quickly
- Tips & Tricks
Why sprout potatoes before planting
What do potatoes grow from? The process starts from the upper eyes. As a rule, one kidney grows. Breaking off seedlings inhibits the development and growth of the plant, weakens the growth processes of tubers.
Correct and timely preparation triggers the biological processes of sprout formation and root development. After germination, the planting material is sorted - rotten, unproductive tubers with or without weak seedlings are removed. As a result, after planting, friendly, strong and healthy seedlings appear.
Selection of tubers and preparation of potatoes
In autumn, seed is selected and subjected to gardening - a procedure that increases the safety of tubers. The potatoes are left for a week in a lighted place, periodically turned over. Tubers become firm, do not lose moisture, mice do not touch them in storage, wounds heal faster. They are stored at a temperature of + 4 ° C and an air humidity of 60-65%. An increase in performance leads to the premature appearance of sprouts, and a decrease in performance leads to freezing of the material.
20-40 days before the intended planting, the harvested potatoes are taken out of the cellar and taken out into the sunlight. Then they are re-sorted out, discarded unsuitable for planting, calibrated and washed under running water to remove residual soil and pathogenic bacteria.
Before germinating potatoes, the planting material is treated with disinfecting solutions:
- 10 g of boric acid per 10 liters of water;
- 10 g of copper sulfate, 2 g of potassium permanganate, 10 g of boric acid per 10 liters of water;
- wood ash for dusting;
- "Fitosporin-M", "Prestige" according to the instructions on the package.
Additional processing increases the plant's immunity to fungal diseases and insect attacks.
Healthy tubers with hatched eyes are suitable for germination. Practice shows that the best result can be achieved when planting tubers weighing 100 g.
In large potatoes, the supply of nutrients is greater than in small specimens. After planting, the tops quickly grows until the reserves contained in the tubers are exhausted. The development of the rhizome lags significantly behind. After the tuber gives up its reserves, the underground part will not be able to fully meet the needs of the green mass. The situation will return to normal once the balance is restored.
Experienced farmers recommend, 3-4 days before planting, to cut large potatoes into pieces, leaving at least three eyes on each piece. During this period, the cut will have time to cork, blocking the access to pathogenic fungi and bacteria.
Planting small tubers will not provide you with a rich harvest. You will have to put 2-3 potatoes in the holes to make the most of the space. Digging such nests will be inconvenient because of the risk of damage to the tubers with a shovel.
Reference. Some certified elite varieties have small planting tubers, which give a full-fledged bush of selected potatoes.
Many methods are used to germinate potatoes before planting, each of them effective. The difference lies in the cost of time and labor.
In the light
Sprouting in the light is a classic way to get the expected result... For this purpose, any room is suitable with the ability to maintain an air temperature of + 12 ... + 16 ° C and diffused light.
Prepared tubers are placed in ventilated boxes, white thin cloth and filter paper are placed on top. In such conditions, seedlings appear in 30-40 days. They firmly "sit" on the tubers, do not break off during transportation. To plant potatoes in early May, the seeds are taken out of storage in the last days of March - early April.
Council. If it is not possible to create the right conditions, use fluorescent lamps for illumination. Tuber lighting time is 8-10 hours.
In the dark
Sprouting potatoes in the dark is the easiest and most commonly used method. Prepared tubers are placed in a container and left in a dark ventilated room. The optimum air temperature is + 14… + 16 ° С. The disadvantage of this method is that the seedlings grow white, long and brittle. Landing is carried out very carefully, trying not to break them off.
The essence of this method is to place the tubers in a humid environment, which accelerates the formation of seedlings and roots. The prepared material is placed in boxes filled with an air-permeable substrate: peat, humus, sawdust.
A layer of wet substrate is placed at the bottom of the box, the potatoes are laid out in one layer and covered with sawdust or peat. Form no more than four layers, otherwise air circulation will be difficult. The gap between the tubers is 1-2 cm. The height of the sawdust or peat layer is 3 cm.
The planting material is periodically moistened with a sprayer. The optimum air temperature is not lower than + 12 ° С and not higher than + 25 ° С. Germination period is 12-15 days.
Important! In the process of germination, make sure that the sprouts do not exceed the size of the tubers, otherwise they will break off during transportation.
In plastic wrap
This method is suitable for sprouting potatoes in a city apartment. Processed potatoes are placed in a dense plastic bag - 12 pcs. into everyone. Holes are made in the bags for air circulation and hung on hooks near the window. The bags are rotated regularly so that the tubers are illuminated from all sides. Sprouts appear after 3 weeks.
This method is not very popular with gardeners, due to the laboriousness of the process. 30 days before planting, the seed is placed in wet sawdust, and after 7-10 days - in clay pots filled with a mixture of a light substrate and humus.
The containers are placed near the window. The optimum room temperature is + 12 ... + 14 ° С. After the emergence of seedlings, the pots are taken outside during the day for hardening, and taken into the house at night. The seedlings are strong and produce a large harvest.
This method is identical to sprouting potatoes in the light, with the difference that nutritional supplements are added to the container. Prepared tubers are folded boxes with holes, the bottom is lined with peat mixed with humus. Put 2-3 cm of the nutrient mixture on top of the tubers. So 6-8 layers are formed.
Then the box is spilled with water using a watering can and placed in a room with a temperature of + 15 ... + 17 ° С... After the emergence of seedlings, the tubers are watered with a mineral solution - 10 g of potassium chloride, 10 g of ammonium nitrate, 10 g of superphosphate, 2 g of boron and copper per 10 l of water, sprinkled with wood ash - 200 g per 10 l of water. After 2-3 days, the boxes are re-spilled with clean water.
After 7 days of such dressings, roots form on the tubers, which indicate the readiness of the material for planting.
On open air
For germination, choose a flat area in the yard and lay out straw or dry peat. Tubers are laid out in rows 1.5 m wide, in 2-3 layers, on top - a layer of soil. A gap of 1 m is left between the rows. At night, the potatoes are covered with a film to protect them from frost. Seedlings and roots appear in a month.
Wilting and warming up
These methods are used if it was not possible to get the tubers from the storage in time. For drying, the tubers are laid out in one layer in a dry room at an air temperature of + 18 ... + 25 ° C, and left for 10-14 days. During this time, enzymes and nutritional components accumulate in the tubers, which contribute to the pecking of the eyes. Such potatoes will sprout friendly after planting.
Seed material is warmed up in order to awaken the tubers 3-4 days before planting. The temperature is increased gradually, starting from + 10 ° С for 3-4 days, and up to + 25 ° С.
This technique produces early potatoes. The preparation of tubers for germination begins 35-40 days before planting. First, they are germinated in the light until strong, thick shoots appear. Then placed in boxes with a humid environment. The first layer of tubers is placed in a moist substrate layer 5 cm thick. The soil is spilled with a nutrient solution: 60 g of superphosphate, 30 g of potassium chloride per 10 liters of water.
The boxes are kept indoors at a temperature of + 20 ... + 22 ° С. Under these conditions, potatoes germinate in 2-3 days. To prevent overgrowth of roots, the temperature is reduced to + 12 ... + 14 ° С.
How to sprout potatoes quickly
Express methods are used for quick germination of potatoes before planting - stimulating cuts, soaking in nutrient solutions, growth stimulants.
How to stimulate germination of potato tubers? Stimulating annular cuts 1 cm deep accelerate the formation of stems and stolons. The manipulation is carried out with a sharp knife, wetting it each time in a solution of potassium permanganate. The incisions are made diagonally without affecting the eyes.
A cross cut is made perpendicular to the axis so that only 1 cm of the tuber remains uncut. This ensures an even distribution of nutrients between the eyes. As a result, bushes with a large number of stems are formed. The yield increase is 17%.
Prepared tubers are rolled in wood ash, placed in boxes, sprinkled with sawdust and left in a dry, cool cellar.
Use of nutrient solutions
Seed potatoes are treated with nutrient solutions 48 hours before germination. This accelerates germination and tuberization, increases the yield by 10-13%.
- 40 g of superphosphate, 40 g of potassium salt per 10 liters of water;
- 1 kg of wood ash, 2 g of copper, 2 g of bromine per 10 liters of water;
- 30 g of potassium sulfate, 15 g of boric acid, 40 g of carbamide, 1 g of copper sulfate, 0.5 g of potassium permanganate;
- 40 g of urea, 60 g of superphosphate, 10 g of boric acid, 5 g of copper sulfate, 1 g of potassium permanganate per 10 liters of hot water.
Processing sprouted potatoes before planting
1-2 days before planting, sprouted tubers are treated with growth stimulants, which activate the defenses of the plant, accelerate the formation of seedlings, and increase the immunity of the plant. For this use drugs: "Poteytin", "Micon", "Epin", "Bioglobin", "GUM", "Planriz", "Potassium humate", "Fitosporin".
To protect potatoes from insectspests tubers are sprayed with chemicals: "Matador", "Prestige"," Maxim "," Quadris ". Alternatively, folk remedies are used: wood ash, Bordeaux liquid, potassium permanganate, copper sulfate.
Tips & Tricks
Gardener tips for the correct sprouting of potatoes:
- Before placing tubers in the germination trays, rinse them thoroughly under the tap to rinse out any remaining soil and bacteria that cause rotting.
- Leave the container with seed potatoes in a ventilated area with a humidity of up to 85%. At low humidity, the tubers wilt quickly, and the sprouts develop at an accelerated rate. Spray potatoes with a spray bottle to prevent moisture loss.
- For light germination, spread the potatoes in 1-2 layers.
- For early young potatoes, use a complex method involving landscaping and germination in a humid environment.
- Remember to disinfect the tubers before sprouting. This will protect the planting from fungal infections and insect attacks.
- The appearance of green roots on the tubers is the main sign that it is time to plant.
- To speed up the appearance of roots that sprout on potato tubers, this method will help - immediately after the formation of seedlings, place the tubers in the dark for 3-4 days.
- When transporting sprouted tubers, be careful not to break off the sprouts.
- If the seedlings have grown large, gently break them open without damaging the eyes and use them to get potato seedlings.
The quality and quantity of the crop depends on the correct preparation of the planting material and the implementation of the vernalization procedure, including gardening of tubers, treatment with disinfecting solutions, germination and soaking in growth stimulants. The timing of the emergence of seedlings depends on the chosen method, air temperature and humidity in the room, and on average is 30 days.
Each of the methods - germination in the light, in the dark, in bags, in a humid environment, in pots, in boxes with fertilizers - gives a positive result. To increase the defenses of the plant, shorten the period of emergence of sprouts, tubers are soaked in nutrient solutions and growth stimulants.