Varieties of varieties and hybrids of tomatoes and their characteristics
Tomatoes are one of the most common vegetable crops. The number of varieties and hybrids is in the thousands. Today we will help you understand the whole variety of tomatoes and tell you which varieties and hybrids are best to choose, based on specific growing conditions and characteristics.
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The main types of tomatoes
Depending on the growth, tomatoes are divided into several types:
Let's take a closer look at each variety.
These are the shortest tomatoes, they are distinguished by the compact size of the bush and the thick stem.... Standard varieties are not the most productive varieties, their main advantage is early maturity.
The main advantages of the species include:
- resistance to adverse factors - drought, frost;
- a thick stem, thanks to which the plant does well without tying;
- tight fit due to compact size;
- shallow location of the roots, which allows you to actively absorb water and additional nutrients;
- good transportability of fruits.
Standard crops are grown mainly in greenhouses and hotbeds, it is advisable to plant in open ground only in the southern regions.
The standard types include the following varieties:
- Cameo is an early ripe variety with smooth fruits, juicy pulp and pleasant aroma.
- Buyan - the average weight of cylindrical fruits is 90 g. Excellent for conservation, resistant to the vagaries of the weather, tobacco mosaic.
- Yamal is distinguished by its increased resistance to diseases and pests. With proper care, a good harvest of dense, rounded fruits weighing 70-100 g is obtained.
The stem of indeterminate tomatoes reaches 2-4 m in height, so the varieties must be tied up. To limit the growth of the plant, pinch the top of the stem. This variety is characterized by long-term fruiting; in heated greenhouses, the plant bears crops throughout the year.
Reference. The culture is great for the southern regions. In the middle lane, it is grown in greenhouses. In regions with short and cool summers, it is better not to plant indeterminate varieties.
- high yield - 14-17 kg / m²;
- resistant immunity to fungal diseases and the vagaries of nature.
The disadvantages include mandatory strict adherence to the rules of agricultural technology, especially when forming a plant bush.
Among the many indeterminate cultures, there are:
- Angel F1 - a new domestic hybrid without limiting the region of cultivation, early maturing, for salad purposes. Differs in high productivity, good immunity to fusarium and verticilliosis.
- Belfast F1 - a popular early ripe hybrid, immune to cladosporium, fusarium, tobacco mosaic, tolerates transportation well. Fruits with an average weight of 210 g, do not crack, yield high - up to 26 kg / m².
Other indeterminate varieties and hybrids - Miracle of Walford, Crushed Heart, Tyler f1, Lion Heart, Star of Siberia.
Semi-determinant ones stop growing at about 10-12 inflorescences, have a high yield, do not require complex maintenance, are suitable for greenhouses and open ground.
Distinctive feature of the species - short internodes.
Among the many semi-determinant varieties, there are:
- Magnus - an early variety with tasty fruits, considered ideal for canning.
- Silhouette - a greenhouse hybrid, its small fruits are perfectly stored and transported.
- Red Arrow - one of the most unpretentious varieties, suitable for canning and summer salads, has a high yield.
- Zinulya - mid-season variety with large and sweet fruits.
Determinant tomatoes are varieties that stop growing when they appear at the top of the flower cluster... The height does not exceed 80 cm. They are grown everywhere: in the southern regions - in open ground, in the rest of Russia - in hotbeds and greenhouses.
Such plants bear fruit 1 time per season for 1-3 weeks.
The main advantages of determinant tomatoes:
- early maturity;
- high productivity;
- friendly return;
- undemanding care;
- the possibility of growing even in the northern regions;
- suitability for canning.
The disadvantages are controversial - some vegetable growers find determinate tomatoes less tasty.
The best varieties of determinant tomatoes:
- Alsou - medium early, large-fruited variety. Grown in open and closed ground, yield up to 9 kg / m². Consumed fresh and in salads.
- Gina TST is a mid-season variety that does not require pinching for film greenhouses and open ground. Resistant to cracking and disease, suitable for canning and fresh consumption.
- Lyubasha F1 - ultra-early hybrid of universal purpose, resistant to cracking and diseases, suitable for growing in open and closed ground. Differs in high yield - up to 20 kg / m².
For open ground
It is believed that tomatoes grown in the open field surpass greenhouse ones in taste, size and yield... In an open garden, pollination is better, and increased humidity in the greenhouse affects the quality of pollen.
In the southern regions, almost any variety or hybrid is planted in open ground. When choosing a variety for planting in central lane or Siberia, the following characteristics are taken into account:
- early maturity - early and medium early are recommended;
- the best choice would be low-growing species - standard, determinant and semi-determinant, such species are easier to cover in case of frost;
- immunity to late blight - the most common disease in these regions;
- the ability to ripen after early harvest, since in the northern regions the harvest is harvested before the first frost.
Choosing a tomato for open ground, pay attention to the following varieties:
- Boney-MM - ultra-early ripening variety, suitable for growing throughout Russia, standard, compact. The fruits are red, juicy. It does not need special care, it ripens before the outbreak of late blight.
- Torbay F1 - mid-early determinant hybrid, needs tying and pinching. The fruits are fleshy, sweet, pink, suitable for fresh consumption and canning. Differs in high resistance to diseases and drought.
- Persimmon - mid-season determinant variety, fruits are round, amber-yellow, fleshy. The culture tolerates bad weather well, is distinguished by good transportability and safety, matures well indoors.
Other varieties and hybrids are also suitable. - Babushkino, Nastena F1, Rosanna F1, Lady, Kasamori F1, Crystal F1.
Not every tomato variety is suitable for growing in greenhouses.... Greenhouse varieties and hybrids must have a strong immunity to various diseases and infections, since any changes in the microclimate of the greenhouse will affect the health of the crop.
When choosing a variety, take into account the height of the plant and the greenhouse., because tall tomatoes need space.
It is quite difficult for pollinating insects to get into the greenhouse, therefore self-pollinated varieties are preferred.
For beginners recommend the following varieties and hybrids:
- Diva F1 - early maturing determinant hybrid of universal application.Not affected by most tomato diseases. Large-fruited, gives a good harvest with a minimum of effort.
- Blagovest F1 - mid-early indeterminate large-fruited hybrid, resistant to mosaic, cladosporium, late blight. Produces a bountiful harvest, great for salads and canning. Pinching is obligatory at a height of 1.5-2 m.
- Budenovka Is a mid-season, indeterminate variety that does not require special care. Possesses stable immunity to diseases, is well stored and tolerates transportation, high-yielding, universal purpose.
When choosing tomatoes for canning, take into account a few nuances:
- the size and shape of the fruit;
- skin density;
- small seed chambers;
- fleshy walls.
Modern breeders have bred a huge number of varieties and hybrids suitable for canning:
- Adam's apple - an indeterminate greenhouse variety with round, perfectly even fruits weighing about 130-180 g. It is distinguished by high productivity, good immunity to diseases, and simultaneous ripening of a large number of tomatoes.
- Barnaul cannery - determinant early maturing variety for open ground, tomatoes weighing 40-60 g, ripen together. Ideal for canning.
- Tanya F1 - mid-season hybrid of determinant type, round fruits, weighing 150-170 g. Does not require special care, resistant to tomato diseases, does not require pinching, gives a high-quality harvest.
- Pickling Delicacy - is considered an ideal variety for canning.
For growing on the balcony
The simplest guideline when buying seeds is the inscription on the packaging "balcony variety". Also pay attention to such characteristics:
- early maturity;
- immunity to disease;
- shallow root system.
Do not place containers with tomatoes of different varieties nearby... If cross-pollination occurs, the quality of the crop will be affected.
In our country, the most popular are:
- Balcony miracle - a small compact bush is literally covered with small tomatoes, average weight 60 g. Self-pollinated, early ripening variety. It is grown all year round, the yield is up to 2 kg per bush.
- Ballerina F1 - early ripe hybrid, collect up to 2 kg of tomatoes from the bush. It is well stored, has a strong immunity to diseases, tolerates temperature changes well, and is very tasty.
- Yellow pearl - early ripe variety with small yellow fruits weighing about 30 g. Undemanding to lighting. A compact bush gives up to 6 kg of yield.
Cold-resistant tomatoes are easier to tolerate than others.
Such varieties are very popular in the northern regions.:
- Snegirek - an absolute record holder among cold-resistant tomatoes, grows and bears fruit at temperatures from 0 ° C, undersized. Fruits are large, weighing up to 200 g. Does not require pinching.
- Taimyr - ultra-early ripening, standard, resistant to late blight and low temperatures. It grows and bears fruit even when the bush freezes.
- Snowfall F1 - indeterminate, cold-resistant, mid-early hybrid for universal use. It perfectly tolerates temperature extremes. The harvested fruits are well stored and can ripen until December.
Among the high-yielding varieties, the following are distinguished:
- Raspberry Giant - large mid-season tomato, more suitable for fresh consumption, grows well both in open and closed ground. Up to 6 kg of fruits are harvested from one bush, unpretentious and resistant to diseases.
- Bull heart - a favorite tomato variety, the fruits are tasty and fragrant, weighing up to 400 g. Average yield per bush - 8 kg.
- Andromeda F1 - an early hybrid with good taste and fruitful characteristics, requires a garter. The fruits are red and yellow, the latter being larger. It bears fruit well in greenhouses.
As with all other vegetable crops, tomatoes are classified by ripening dates.
From the moment the first shoots appear to ripening, it takes from 75 to 85 days... As a rule, these are undersized tomatoes with small fruits. They are not famous for their high yield; they are suitable for regions with short daylight hours.
It is worth considering for planting such super early tomatoes as:
- Gardener's dream - disease-resistant, high-yield, versatile variety. Requires a garter and pinning. The fruits are juicy and sweet.
- Greenhouse early maturing F1 - hybrid tomato for universal use, dark red fruits with a slight bitterness.
Early harvest tomatoes are harvested 90 days after germination... The flesh of these vegetables is sweeter than that of the ultra early. The varieties are suitable for growing in temperate and cold climates.
Early ripe varieties and hybrids of tomatoes that won the love of gardeners:
- Barberry F1 - early maturing indeterminate hybrid for greenhouses, requires garter and pinching. Fruits are oval, juicy, collected in large clusters of 50-70 pieces. Fruiting until autumn.
- Big mommy - early, determinant variety for open ground and greenhouses. Requires a garter and pinning. A unique combination of early maturity and large-fruited, yield - up to 9 kg / m².
Ripening time of mid-ripening tomatoes - 100-115 days from the date of emergence... Such varieties feel great both in the open field and in greenhouses.
One of the most popular mid-late varieties is considered:
- Altai masterpiece - the fruits weigh an average of 400 g, the taste is pleasant, delicious. The plant is tied up and pinched.
- Rosemary F1 - the hybrid has a high yield, is rich in vitamin A, has immunity to cladosporium and fusarium.
It takes 120-130 days to ripen, for the most part, these are greenhouse varieties.
Among late tomatoes, there are:
- Beef Pink Brandy - has an unusual taste, excellent for salads, large-fruited, well tolerates transportation and has a long shelf life.
- Bobcat - determinant hybrid, yield up to 6 kg / m², resistant to major crop diseases.
Every gardener dreams of an excellent harvest of quality tomatoes. Choosing the right seeds is essential to achieving this goal.
Before going to the store, decide which tomatoes you want to grow - small, large, lettuce or for canning, where you will plant - in the open field, in a greenhouse or on a balcony, what kind of harvest you plan to get. We talked about all the nuances in detail, so choosing the same variety will not be difficult for you.