Various methods and schemes for the formation of cucumbers in the open field: instructions for beginners
Cucumbers grow in our country in any country, regardless of climatic conditions. A mandatory procedure, on which the quality and quantity of fruits depends, is the formation of a cucumber bush. We will tell you how to do it correctly in order to get a bountiful harvest.
The content of the article
- What is formation, what is it for
- Features of the formation of cucumbers in the open field
- Terms of the procedure
- What is needed to carry out the formation
- Formation schemes
- How to form cucumbers in the open field
- The nuances of the formation of parthenocarpic cucumbers
- Cucumbers not requiring shaping
What is formation, what is it for
The formation of cucumber lianas is an important agrotechnical measure. Thanks to him:
- The plant spends energy not on the development of green mass, but on nutrition and growth of fruits.
- Even in a limited area with a small number of bushes, you can get a rich harvest.
- The period of life and, accordingly, the fruiting of the plant is extended.
- Scourges and leaves get more air and light.
- The possibility of plant damage by diseases and pests is reduced.
- Facilitates care (watering and loosening).
- Harvesting is more convenient as the fruits do not hide in the foliage.
Features of the formation of cucumbers in the open field
Some gardeners leave the plant alone and let it grow and crawl wherever it pleases, but the result can be disappointing. If the summer is rainy and cold, the lashes will rot and be damaged from excessive moisture, and the fruits will also rot.
In the open field, plant formation is equally important, than in the greenhouseand it's much easier to do it. You do not need to follow the instructions and scrupulously calculate the number of leaves and shoots that have appeared. After the appearance of 4 leaves, pinch the central shoot, which will cause the appearance and active growth of the lateral ones.
In varieties grown outdoors, it is often on the lateral shoots that female flowers form, which bear fruit. With proper care - regular watering, top dressing and loosening - you just have to wait for a rich harvest.
Terms of the procedure
If the seedlings are too thick, they must be cut immediately. The distance between them should be at least 0.5 m. After the appearance of 4 leaves, the plant is pinched, when it reaches 30 cm, it is tied up. Throughout the growing season and fruiting, if necessary, direct the growth of the vines in the right direction, straighten and fix the lashes.
What is needed to carry out the formation
Do not carry your garter if the weather is too windy. The soil at the time of installation of structures should not be too wet or dry. It will be impossible to reliably install and fix the pegs in such soil.
A garden pruner or sharp shears are required to trim the plant.
Important! Gardening tools are pre-disinfected so that infection does not get into the open cut.
The formation scheme depends on the characteristics and characteristics of the variety:
- Some of them have female flowers on the central lash. Such a plant forms into one stem.
- In varieties where the female flowers are located on the side shoots, the entire crop will be lost when the plant is formed in one lash. Here the main shoot is removed, and most often two lateral ones develop.
- Some varieties do not need to be formed at all. They only need to thin out the leaves.
How to form cucumbers in the open field
There are many ways and methods of forming a cucumber bush, and new ones are constantly appearing.Let's dwell on the most popular ones.
Most methods of forming a cucumber bush require the use of a garter at least at the initial stage of growth. This is necessary, for example, when using natural trellis.
When fastened to a wire, the garter serves as a support throughout the life of the plant. The first procedure is carried out when the plant reaches 30 cm in height. At this time, the stem becomes strong enough and enters a period of active growth, 5-6 full-fledged leaves have already been formed on it. Growth after 30 cm without a garter is dangerous for the stem. This can lead to breakage and death of the plant.
On the other hand, there is no need to tie up a plant that is too young, immature and easily damaged. When the bush grows to the desired height, the support and tying will have to be redone.
Important! Do not use jute ropes or synthetic cords to tie the branches - they can damage the leaves and branches. For this, tapes made of old soft fabric with a width of 1.5-2 cm are suitable.
For short lashes, pinching and garter are not performed. The procedure is necessary for varieties that form long vines. In this case, nets will become an alternative to tying. The lashes will fix themselves on them.
On the trellis
A wooden trellis can be decorated in an original way, and it will not only support cucumber lashes, but also decorate the site. The lower shoots and 3 leaves are pinched off so that the cucumbers bear fruit well.
Using natural trellis is a method that requires a minimum of effort. Bushes are planted at a distance of 20-25 cm from the fence of the site - a fence or mesh. Slanting ropes are pulled from them to the top of the hedge. As a result, the vines cover the hedge like a grapevine, and the summer resident gathers a rich harvest without hindrance. In the fall, however, you will have to work a little to clear the fence of dried lashes.
On a wire
One of the ways of forming is wire anchoring. For this:
- Along the far edges of the bed, where the cucumbers are planted in 2 rows, 2 pegs about 1.5 m high are driven in.
- A wire is pulled between the supports.
- Twine is attached to each plant of the first row, thrown over a wire and tied to a plant from a neighboring ridge. Before that, pinch off all the lower shoots and 3 leaves each.
When the vines grow up, a kind of green hut of cucumber greens is formed in the beds. Plants in it will feel great, without touching the ground, well ventilated and bear fruit abundantly.
On the grid
The use of a mesh is one of the most aesthetic and comfortable ways for a plant to support and form:
- A mesh cloth of the required length is purchased in advance in a shop for gardeners.
- Two sturdy vertical bases (beams or pipes) are buried deep in the ground at the far ends of the cucumber row.
- Between the bases, a net is pulled from the ground itself, slightly receding from the stems of the bushes.
- Fix it to a vertical base with a wire.
- The lower shoots and leaves are removed from the plants.
- Periodically direct the growing lashes in the right direction and straighten them. The vines will fix themselves on the trellis net.
This method, like others, allows you to control the development of each plant, to care for it and to harvest it easily.
The nuances of the formation of parthenocarpic cucumbers
Parthenocarpic (self-fertile) cucumbers, appearing in seed stores, immediately attracted the attention of gardeners. There are very few or no male flowers on their vines, but there are a lot of female flowers. These are cucumbers with a very rich fruiting, therefore correct formation and pruning is especially important for them. Moreover, each variety has its own subtleties.
Without formation, hybrids will not produce a rich harvest. It is a pity for some inexperienced summer residents to get rid of the lateral lashes of the plant. But they take away a significant proportion of nutrients and moisture, the fruits are formed for a long time, then dry up and fall off.
If flowers and ovaries are formed mainly on the main shoot, the lashes are formed by the method of blinding in the lower tier.
- Flowers and ovaries are removed in the first leaf axils (in the lower tier).
- On a segment of up to 50 cm, the shoots are pinched on one ovary and 2 leaves.
- In the interval from 0.5 m to 1.5 m, 2 ovaries and 2-3 leaves are kept.
- Above 1.5 m, the shoot is pinched over 3 leaves, 4 ovaries are kept on it.
Parthenocarpic hybrids are successfully grown on trellises. At the same time, good illumination of the bush, uniform and abundant fruiting is ensured, the load on the plant is regulated.
Bunch cucumber Is a modern, high-yielding hybrid with abundant and long-term fruiting, a record holder in yield.
The formation of bundled cucumbers can be started a week after planting when 8-9 leaves appear. Shoots appear in the leaf axils along the entire length of the main stem, therefore, it is better to form the formation in one stem. This will make work easier, increase yields and improve the taste of the fruit. Such a formation is convenient to carry out when attached to a wire.
- In the lower 4-6 nodes, female ovaries and rudiments of leaf shoots are plucked out of the leaf sinuses. This is done before flowering begins. The procedure stimulates the plant to grow faster and form a strong leaf apparatus.
- On the main stem, remove the lateral shoots before the start of the trellis wire. This must be done in time, until they have outgrown the size of 3-5 cm.On the main stem, 2-3 shoots are left under the support, pinching them into 2 leaves.
- When the tip of the shoot grows to the wire, make sure that the vine does not get confused with a neighboring plant, pinch if necessary.
With this formation, fruiting may occur 2-3 days later, but the yield will be 2-3 times higher.
In indeterminate varieties of cucumbers, the ovaries are formed on the lateral lashes, so the main attention is paid to them.
Formation is carried out according to the scheme:
- After the appearance of 5 leaves, the sprout is tied to a trellis and pinched from above.
- As soon as 2 shoots appear, they are tied to a lattice and directed in different directions.
- When the bush grows to the top of the support, the ovaries and side lashes are removed up to 4 leaves inclusive. From 5 to 9 leaves, there should be only one ovary in each bosom.
- In the future, they monitor the uniform development of the whip on each side. If one of them gets stronger, spend it pinching.
Cucumbers not requiring shaping
Today, hybrids of cucumbers with a female type of flowering have been bred, that is, when absolutely all shoots form female flowers that bear fruit.
It is not necessary to deal with the formation of these plants; cucumbers will appear on all shoots with good care. It is most convenient to grow them on a grid.
To get a rich harvest of cucumbers planted outdoors, it is not enough to plant, weed and water them on time. Of great importance is the timely and correct formation and pruning of the plant strictly according to the scheme and in accordance with variety.