What is a corn seeder: how it works, a review of the best models and how to create it yourself
Corn requires even placement of seeds in a row, so each plant is given the same germination conditions. For more efficient sowing, seeders are used. There are many models of equipment available on the market with various options for additional equipment. This allows you to customize the machine for the needs of each farm. Consider what kind of corn seeders are and how to make them yourself.
The content of the article
- What is a corn seeder
- Varieties of seeders and their device
- Popular brands
- How to make a do-it-yourself corn seeder
What is a corn seeder
A corn planter is an equipment that sows seeds into the soil. Before their appearance, this was done by hand: grains were scattered in the field, trying to fill the empty spaces. However, sowing evenly by hand is not possible. For this, a special technique is used - mechanical seeders.
How she looks like
The structure of a corn seeder consists of the following parts:
- frame mounted on wheels;
- sections with seeds;
- storage for seeds;
- dosing devices.
Depending on the number of sections in the seeder models, the planting row is determined. To adjust it, it is enough to remove or add drums to the frame. The technology of planting various types of corn depends on this.
Reference! With cross sowing technology, when the seeder moves along and then diagonally or across the field, the sections are removed from the frame.
All corn seeders are of 3 types:
- universal - they work using seeds of various crops, but fertilizers are not applied;
- combined - they introduce seeds into the soil along with fertilizers;
- special - use only 1 type of seed.
All devices consist of the following departments:
- compartments for seeds (usually 1-2);
- furrow closing mechanism;
- opener, with the help of which grooves are made in the ground with the same depth;
- sowing device, feeding seeds in even portions into special seed tubes.
Principle of operation
Each seeder has a similar operating principle:
- The seeds are fed into the machine.
- They are placed in the soil at the required depth and at an equal distance from each other.
- Close up using a special mechanism.
A pneumatic mechanism is used to crush and remove lumps. In order to be able to use the seeder on a problem field, crop residues are cut with special discs. The skid coulter then goes into the ground without any problems.
It is interesting:
Varieties of seeders and their device
The types of equipment differ in size, design and sowing methods. If large seeders are suitable for large farms, then a hinged device for a walk-behind tractor is sufficient in the garden.
Trailed / mounted
Trailed and mounted seeders are divided according to the method of attachment to equipment. The former require less efficient machines to operate. For example, a tractor with a capacity of 45-60 liters. from. or seeding devices Kinze 3000, MT-8, YP-1630F, which have a capacity of 80 liters. from. They are aggregated with an eight-row 130 HP YP-825 seeder. from.
Attachments are used to work with productive machines not lower than the second class and tractors with high powers (250-320 hp and 200-220 hp).
Mechanical / pneumatic
The sowing of corn is done in a dotted manner. In this case, seeders have a pneumatic mechanism or a mechanical one.
Mechanical seeders are gradually becoming obsolete and disappearing; in many countries they have already been taken out of production. To change the types of seeds, you have to completely dismantle the working panel and re-adjust, adjust the row spacing. There is simply not enough time for such a procedure.
The pneumatic corn seeders have a more advanced design, which includes:
- lump remover;
- furrow filling machine;
- sealing wheel;
- wedge shaft;
- runner opener.
Its labor productivity is much higher with minimal time investment. Fertilizers are applied along with the seeds. Among the significant disadvantages are:
- high price of the seeder;
- insufficiently effective work on problem soil;
- inability to use in fields where there are many roots in the ground.
Manual / for walk-behind tractors / for construction equipment
Handheld devices — some of the most popular for sowing corn in small areas. Used in medium and small farms. They are distinguished by high productivity: 0.5 hectares are sown in one day, provided that the land is prepared. They work by means of a sowing disc or a plate at the bottom of the seed tank.
Seeders for walk-behind tractor allow you to sow in even steps in each of the rows. For their use, holes are made in advance at a selected distance. The devices are used only on loose and soft soils. Do not use on clay and heavy soil. A simple design has too much weight and dimensions.
Seeders for special equipment are multifunctional. With their help, several types of corn are sown at once, while simultaneously capturing the maximum number of rows, the seeds are distributed over the marked holes, fertilized and covered with earth. Such equipment has large dimensions and weight, it is used only on tractors and other machines with a capacity of 45 to 320 liters. from.
Let's consider the main characteristics of the known models of corn seeders.
The Italian machine is distinguished by the original placement of seeds in the soil... The equipment has a double grain switch with adjustment to sow seeds that are processed and of irregular shape or size. The seeding depth is adjusted mechanically using a special handle. The seeds are pressed into the soil in a stainless steel circle. This solution ensures uniform growth of cereals.
Interesting! The model has a planter module setting for different types of crops and land. The gear box of the reducer allows for an easy and quick installation.
MT-8 has a fertilizer seeding system with the ability to dose from 50 to 700 kg / ha.
The price of the model is 450–1400 thousand rubles. According to reviews, this is one of the most popular brands among their own kind. The only one with special seeding sensors, practically does not break. Parts are sold at low prices.
The German manufacturer has two models of maize seeding machines: ED and EDX. The second is intended for growing in large areas, where time is very important. The working speed of the vehicle is 15 km / h.
ED models are available with 4, 6, 8 or 12 seed rows. The placement of seeds in the soil is based on the principle of air suction. The vacuum draws the grains into the holes and puts them in the ground. The seeders are equipped with a central seeding drive. The gear train has 36 steps - depending on the discs used, intervals from 2 to 53.8 cm are obtained.
The price of the device is 2.5-10 million rubles. According to farmers' reviews, the brand is considered one of the most reliable. There are practically no negative aspects, apart from the high price.
"A red star"
The Ukrainian plant "Krasnaya Zvezda" produces a model for sowing corn SUPN-8, which places fertilizers in a special furrow, sprinkles them and produces high-precision sowing of corn seeds, creating optimal conditions for their growth. The seeder productivity is 3.36–3.9 ha / h at a flow rate of 2 to 16 kg / ha.
Cost - 295-599 thousand rubles. On the positive side, they note a fairly low price and cheap spare parts. Among the minuses are frequent breakdowns.
The Belarusian manufacturer produces the SPCh-6 model with precise sowing of seeds and use for row crops. Like SUPN-8, it allows you to place fertilizers in the furrows. The maximum number of rows is 6 (with a storage volume of 20–30 liters, a flow rate of 3–7 pcs / m and a furrow width of 45–70 cm).
Price - from 260 thousand rubles. Of the advantages, farmers note a relatively low price and the availability of a transport device. The disadvantages are the impossibility of using fertilizers during sowing, the device's “dislike” for damp weather and the ability to work only on ideally prepared soil.
The American company produces the 7000 model, which works on a mechanical principle. The seeder weighs 3.85 tons. The unit has an 8-row structure with a storage volume of 56 liters. Price - from 1.5 million rubles.
There are practically no negative reviews on John Deere seeders on the Internet. Most of the owners of this model have no complaints about it, but they point to the high price and the fact that in rainy weather the device gets clogged with adhering damp earth.
How to make a do-it-yourself corn seeder
The DIY seeder is an easy-to-use equipment. The selection of materials for the device completely depends on the designer's flight of imagination, although there are basic principles.
What to use to create a structure
To make a seeder with your own hands, it is important to know its design. You will need:
- steel sheets with a thickness of 2.5 mm and a size of about 1 m2;
- latch, furniture hinge and glass cover;
- galvanized steel box (seed container)
- M6 screws and M5 bolts;
- 1-2 wheels;
Planter components and step by step instructions
For a homemade seeder you will need:
- the hopper into which the seeds are loaded;
- one or more wheels for moving the seeder;
- dispensing sleeve for grain;
- frame for fastening control gears and wheels;
- blind drilled holes along the edges of the seed sleeve through which filling takes place.
Instructions for creating:
- Drill 3 rows of holes with different diameters in the seeding shaft to match the type of seed.
- Take a seed container and adjust the frame according to its dimensions.
- Insert the seeding shaft into the 28.05 mm holes drilled on the sides from the bottom.
- Bolt the grain tank and attach a brush over it to adjust the seed density.
- Adjust the correct configuration for the truncated trapezoid container with the desired holes.
- Attach the lid on top of the tank with a furniture hinge and a special latch.
Precision seeders for maize cost a lot: it's easier for private traders to rent a machine or buy it together with neighbors. When choosing a specific model, pay attention to the equipment that is suitable for the specific soil.
It is not recommended to save on some elements of equipment: for example, the ability to fertilize the land or a hectare meter - this option is especially important if you are going to open a business to provide a new seeder for use.