What is leaf feeding of wheat and what fertilizers can be used for these purposes
To obtain a good harvest of wheat, mineral fertilizers are needed. The root system takes the necessary elements from the soil, which is why it is so important to fertilize it. But lack of moisture, low temperature and other unfavorable conditions reduce the ability of the roots to receive the necessary nutrition. In these cases, the method of leaf feeding of wheat helps.
The content of the article
- What is leaf feeding
- Advantages and disadvantages
- When does feeding start
- How to feed wheat
- Correct dosage of fertilizers
- Leaf feeding technology
- Fertilization features
What is leaf feeding
Wheat needs nutrients throughout the growing season. The soil does not contain enough of the required elements, therefore it is important to deliver them from the outside. Top dressing on the leaf is carried out by spraying. Fertilizers are delivered through the leaves and not through the roots, so this method is also called foliar. The assimilation is faster, but there are limitations. Elements such as magnesium, potassium and nitrogen are absorbed faster, while sulfur and phosphorus are absorbed more slowly. This fertilization method reduces the possibility of nitrogen removal during leaching and denitrification.
Advantages and disadvantages
The advantages of the method:
- saving withering plants;
- feeding under unfavorable conditions;
- quick way to assimilate fertilizers.
- diseased plants cannot be processed;
- in too hot or cold weather, feeding is ineffective;
- you need to spend often, so it takes more time.
When does feeding start
For proper growth and increase in yield, it is important to know exactly when to add mineral fertilizers... At different stages of the growing season, wheat requires a different dosage of additives.
Foliar dressing in autumn
During germination, nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus are needed. If there is a lack of phosphorus, the yield will be less, and it is impossible to make up for its deficiency at later stages. Potassium is absorbed by the plant before flowering, so it is important that it is contained in the soil prior to sowing. The content of nitrogen fertilizers should be minimal, so as not to reduce resistance to cold weather and not expose wheat to disease and pests.
Leaf dressing in spring
In 6-7 months, active wheat growth begins. At this stage, the plant needs zinc, magnesium, manganese; also the content of sulfur, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium requires constant monitoring.
The best fertilizer is carbamide. Due to its fast penetration and good absorption, together with sulfur and magnesium, it is most often chosen for growing wheat. It is allowed to introduce urea together with fungicides and insecticides.
Sometimes potash nitrate is used, it helps to increase the yield after three treatments. Also at the stage of growth, the plant needs ammonium nitrate. Urea is also used, it is able to raise the protein and gluten content in grains.
Important! The main thing is not to forget that leaf feeding is not the main way of getting fertilizers by the plant. The main thing is to obtain elements by the root system from the soil.
How to feed wheat
For wheat, in addition to nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus, the presence of the following elements is important:
- sulfur - affects gluten, improving its composition;
- manganese - affects the metabolism, participates in the assimilation of water, lowers the acidity of the soil;
- iron - prevents the leaves from turning yellow, improves photosynthesis, where this element is just needed;
- copper - participates in the process of metabolism of proteins and carbohydrates;
- zinc - affects the yield, increases the number of grains in the ears;
- calcium - reduces soil acidity and morbidity, increases disease resistance;
- magnesium - participates in the metabolic and respiratory processes of wheat.
Organic fertilizers improve soil composition. Carbamide (aka urea - nitrogen-containing agent) increases wheat growth, density, and increases the amount of protein in the grain.
Correct dosage of fertilizers
When breeding irrigation compounds, age, plant variety, and weather conditions are taken into account.
Important! Different nutrients are needed at different stages of the growing season of wheat.
Introduced during the growing season, these funds help to enhance the growth of plants, their density, and increase the amount of grain. Most expedient of nitrogen fertilizers use carbamide - it increases the amount of protein in the grains. It is also important to evenly distribute the amount of fertilizer throughout the growth period:
- Before sowing, soil treatment with ammonium nitrate - 30 kg per 1 ha.
- In the tillering phase - 35-40 kg / ha.
- Trumping - 65-75 kg per 1 ha.
- The remainder is calculated to the norm, added during flowering.
Potassium and phosphorus
They help the plant ripen faster and improve the palatability. Phosphorus influences nucleic acid synthesis and nitrogen assimilation. Superphosphates are the choice. Phosphorus oxide leads to the fact that the fruiting period begins earlier, the culture ages more slowly, the grain becomes of better quality, the assimilation of elements improves.
Increases the nutritional value of cereals. Potassium must be added before sowing. Potassium chloride and potassium salt are used as fertilizers at the rate of 50-60 kg / ha.
It is necessary to reduce the acidity of the soil, which is especially important for the growth of winter wheat. It also improves the quality of photosynthesis and promotes the accumulation of carbohydrates. The most commonly used are calcium carbonate, chalk, limestone, calcium nitrate at the rate of 3-5 c / ha.
The enrichment of the plant with magnesium is carried out in the form of treatment with magnesium sulfate. It normalizes protein-carbohydrate metabolism. It is distributed at the rate of 15 kg / ha.
The element is necessary for the assimilation of nitrogen, and also regulates the metabolism of proteins. Used for this magnesium sulfate (S - 13%), superphosphate (S - 24%). The amount depends on the quality of the soil.
Reference.Another important point is organic fertilizers. Chicken manure, humus, manure - 25-30 t / ha, wood ash - 3-5 c / ha are used.
Leaf feeding technology
They are carried out by spraying in compliance with important conditions:
- Slow drying is necessary, so it is advisable to spend in cloudy or in the evening.
- Spray all leaves at all levels of the stem equally.
- More than twice a season.
- Selection of the atomizer - the drops should not be too small or, conversely, a strong jet should not be made.
- The water into which the fertilizers are diluted must be soft or settled.
- It is important to dissolve fertilizers.
Factors that help the absorption of fertilizers:
|Agrotechnical||Soil acidity, soil preparation, protective measures for plant health.|
|Plant age||Young leaves absorb minerals better.|
|Climate||Sufficient soil moisture, low temperature to prevent leaf burns.|
|Ability of elements||Each element has a different penetration rate into the leaves.|
|Compound with urea||Urea helps the penetration and assimilation of elements.|
|Spraying method||Fine-drop spraying with the required set of elements.|
When fertilizing winter and spring wheat varieties different amounts of mineral fertilizers are needed per hectare of land.
Winter wheat is more demanding on the composition of the soil.
At the beginning of growth, 45 kg / ha preparations are required. At the heading stage - 30 kg / ha. At the ripening stage - 15 kg / ha.
Nitrogen is used in amide form (urea). Apply 3-4 times a year.
Spraying with potassium is not cost-effective as it is slowly absorbed through the foliage.
Since the root system of wheat is not as developed as that of other cereals, the use of fertilizer under the leaf is of great importance for it.
Most of the nutrients are consumed in the first half of the growing season (before flowering):
- 82–90% nitrogen;
- 82-100% phosphorus;
- 100% potassium.
Spring crops experience the greatest nitrogen demand during tillering and stemming. During this time, they absorb up to 40% of the nitrogen consumed during the growing season.
The critical period for phosphorus and potassium is the initial growth period. With a shortage, the yield decreases by 20-30%.
The main mistake during feeding is exceeding the permissible concentration of substances in the solution. Instead of fertilizing, it can kill the entire crop. Leaf dressing is an effective method, especially when combined with root dressing. If you approach the procedure wisely, you can expect a good harvest.