Description of the variety and characteristics of winter wheat Ermak
When choosing a wheat variety for sowing, farmers pay attention to yield, crop resistance to diseases and many other factors. The variety of varieties and hybrids makes the choice difficult. In the article, we will talk about the main characteristics of Ermak winter wheat, the peculiarities of planting, care, harvesting and storage of this grain crop.
The content of the article
What is this wheat variety
Winter wheat Ermak varieties were bred at the Rostov Institute of Grain Crops named after I.G. Kalinenko, entered in the state register of the Russian Federation in 2001, in the state register of Ukraine - in 2005, Moldova - in 2008.
Ermak is a highly productive variety medium soft winter wheat. This grain crop was bred by hybridization of the varieties Donskaya semi-intensive, Olympia, Donshchina.
The spike of the plant is spindle-shaped, white, spinous (awns slightly diverge to the sides, short), the scales of the spike are ovoid, medium, the teeth of the scales are medium. The stem has an average length of 8-9 cm, plant height from 75 to 85 cm.
The grain is oval-round, slightly pubescent, red, with a small shallow groove, medium size. The nature of the grain is 799 g per liter, the mass of 1000 grains is 45 g. The content of protein and gluten is 13.5% and 25%, respectively. The growing season of a plant is on average 230 to 290 days.
Characteristics and properties
Milling wheat, belongs to group "A", class 1-3, suitable for use in the baking industry.
The yield, recorded on tests in 2001, is about 5.7 t / ha, the maximum yield is up to 10 t / ha. Wheat has high frost resistance - up to 90-98% of plants survive after winter.
Wheat is adapted to late sowing due to its high regenerative capacity.
Recommended growing regions
Wheat has a limited region cultivation- allowed for use in the North Caucasus, in the Central Black Earth, Lower Volga regions, in Ukraine, Moldova.
Sowing work is carried out in pairs and non-steam predecessors (peas, annual cereals and legumes, perennial plants). The seeding rate is 4.8-4.9 million seeds per hectare. Does not require the use of pesticides. The variety is considered resource-saving.
Dsowing depth - 6-8 cm on dry and sandy soils, 4-6 cm on heavy soils.
The preparation of the soil for sowing is carried out in a mechanized way - by plowing, then harrowing is carried out to a depth of 19-20 cm using disc harrows. Then fertilizers are applied to the soil - manure or mineral fertilizing: per hectare 26-34 kg of nitrogen, 10-12 kg of phosphorus, 21-26 kg of potassium, 4-5 kg of calcium, the application period is in the fall before plowing.
Sowing is carried out by continuous row or cross and narrow-row methods using seeders. After the completion of sowing work, in order to avoid the appearance of a crust on the soil surface, which prevents normal germination, work is carried out on rolling and harrowing.
Typical diseases and pests
Wheat is susceptible to many diseases and pests... Let's consider the most dangerous of them.
It occurs during the filling of grain, at a temperature of + 15 ... + 20 ° C and a humidity of 90%. The disease affects the ears and stems - spots of brown and pink appear on them. Disease prevention is carried out using agrotechnical methods - compliance with crop rotation, plowing after harvest.
Fungal disease affecting the ear. The ears become slightly flattened, green with a blue tint, the scales move apart. Treatment and prevention: thermal disinfection of seeds, application of fertilizers (superphosphate, manure), optimal sowing time, seed treatment with fungicides, for example, "Triazol".
Sub-epidermal brown pustules appear on the leaves and leaf sheaths, which eventually turn black with a glossy shade.
Disease control means: agrotechnical - crop rotation, harrowing of crops, fertilizing with potassium-phosphorus fertilizers, weed control, and chemical methods - fungicides such as triazoles, strobilurins, biological fungicides.
- Bread beetle affects the parenchyma of the plant, often leads to its death. Means of control - correct crop rotation (do not re-sow grain), seed treatment with insecticides "Gaucho", "Nuprid", "Max".
- Cereal flies (Hessian, black wheat, swedish) damage the stem of the plant. Control measures - rapid grain threshing, stubble cultivation together with harvest, application of insecticides "Karate Zeon", "Enzhio".
- Wireworms (black, striped) infect the root system. Control methods - stubble plowing, cultivation, disking, deep autumn plowing.
- Mouse (vole, forest) eat seeds, seedlings. Means of struggle - timely and lossless harvesting of grain, pesticides - "Bactrodensid", ammonia water.
The crop yield depends on the region: in the North Caucasus it is 41-42 c / ha, in the Lower Volga - 19-20 c / ha, in the Rostov region it reaches 95 c / ha.
Harvesting begins in the phase of wax ripeness with a seed moisture content of no more than 29%. Harvested by direct or separate combining. The first method is economically feasible, since it combines the processes of downloading and threshing.
The crop is harvested until the ears are completely dry and the beginning of their cracking and falling off.
After the completion of the threshing work, the grain is delivered to the elevator for post-harvest processing: cleaning from weeds, debris, insects, drying, cooling.
The grain is stored in dry, ventilated rooms at a temperature of + 6 ... + 9 ° C and a humidity of 70%.
During storage, the grain is periodically stirred in order to avoid heating, rotting and burning.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
- resistant to diseases - white and yellow rust, powdery mildew, head smut;
- does not require the use of pesticides;
- late sowing dates;
- lodging resistance;
- drought resistance;
- frost resistance.
Disadvantages of the variety:
- susceptibility to a number of diseases - brown rust, septoria, hard smut;
- It is affected by pests - wireworm, breadfly, ground beetle and rodents.
The market price of the seed of this crop ranges from 15 to 20 rubles. per kg of seeds.
Wholesale prices for the milling industry - 13,000-17,000 rubles. per t.
Winter wheat of the Ermak variety is adapted for sowing in the southern republics and regions of the Russian Federation, throughout Ukraine and Moldova. This wheat is frost-resistant, resistant to many diseases and pests.
The culture does not require special measures for soil preparation, care, harvesting and storage. However, the yield is highly dependent on the planting region.