Optimal conditions for the growth of cereals: at what temperature does wheat germinate at home and in the open field
Wheatlike many cereals, it is easy to germinate at home. Eating wheat germ has tremendous health benefits. The product is rich in vitamins, minerals and amino acids, strengthens the immune system, cleanses the intestines, normalizes the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract, and increases the overall energy level.
The content of the article
- What is required to germinate wheat
- Optimal conditions
- The effect of temperature on wheat
- At what temperature does wheat germinate in the open field
- Wheat for germination
- How to germinate wheat at home
- Tips & Tricks
What is required to germinate wheat
Before starting germination, it is important to make sure you have the necessary equipment. The list is small, but it's better if all the items are at hand. You will need:
- Plastic, glass or ceramic container. Do not use metal bowls - the grain will sour in them. The bottom of the dish should be wide enough for the wheat to be in 1-2 layers.
- Gauze or a light rag.
- Pure water.
- Fine sieve.
The grain itself is also important. An indicator of its quality is the simultaneous germination of almost all specimens.
Even high-quality grains sprout only if a number of conditions are met. TAir temperature, lighting, humidity - all these factors affect the result.
Wheat grains are afraid of both very low and high temperatures. A warm environment is considered optimal for germination - + 20… + 25 ° C.
Germination is carried out in a humid environment, but so that there is no excess water. It is best to cover the grains with gauze soaked in water, or rinse them every 8 hours.
Important! If there is too much liquid, the grains will not germinate, but will simply swell and burst.
The place for germination should be light, but not in direct sunlight. Grains need fresh air, but they are afraid of drafts.
The main mistakes due to which wheat does not germinate:
- too much water;
- a lot of grains in a small bowl;
- drying of grains that have already begun to germinate;
- too long germination.
The indicator of the right product is a pleasant fresh scent.
The effect of temperature on wheat
All stages of plant development are in direct proportion to the sum of active temperatures. An optimal transition from one phase to another is possible only if the plant is in a favorable environment for a strictly defined time. Wheat is extremely sensitive to sudden changes in temperature, which in many cases leads to damage or even death of the crop.
The effect of high temperatures on wheat is often more detrimental than severe frosts, from which plants are usually protected by preliminary hardening. A cereal crop is most sensitive to warming after sowing, when shoots and stems are formed.
If the soil temperature exceeds + 24 ° C, the grains go into a dormant state, stopping germination. First of all, this concerns young seeds, but with a further increase in values, growth slows down in wheat that is more resistant to excessive heat.
The high temperature negatively affects not only the seeds, but also the adult plant. When the air temperature rises above + 24 ° C, photosynthesis in the leaves first slows down, and at higher values it stops altogether.When the leaves are heated above + 29 ... + 32 ° C, the plant burns calories faster than accumulates, which leads to the so-called negative growth, in which the ear loses its original size.
When heated to a temperature of + 35 ° C or more, the main enzymes of the plant are destroyed. Too rapid accumulation of the sum of active temperatures leads to the fact that the nutrients obtained as a result of photosynthesis become insufficient for normal development. The leaves become smaller and smaller, in some cases the ear does not form.
The effect of low temperatures on wheat leads to different consequences. The roots of the plant die when the soil freezes up to -3 ... -5 ° C, but this rarely happens. Cooling turns out to be much more dangerous after the growth point has appeared on the surface.
Early snowfalls, then blown away by the wind, are considered particularly unfavorable conditions. In this case, the plants will not be protected by the snow cover.
Reference. If the snow insulates the growing point from the effects of cold, the grain can withstand frosts down to -34 ° C.
Unhardened wheat leaves withstand temperatures up to -7 ... -9 ° С, after hardening - up to -12 ... -18 ° С. The critical value for spikelets and flowers is -2 ... -3 ° С. This is the main reason that the growth point is not brought to the surface until the required amount of active temperatures accumulates or the length of daylight hours increases.
As a result of the influence of frost on the ear, the main stem often dies, becomes whitish and empty. Plants with a well-developed root system and 3-4 leaves are the most resistant to the influence of low temperatures. Cereals with a large number of shoots are less susceptible to hardening, therefore they are more susceptible to death from frost.
Wheat grains are not too susceptible to temperature fluctuations, but they are afraid of drought, lack of fresh air and fungal infections. These are the main factors affecting germination.
Sum of active temperatures
Depending on the period of development, the plant requires an unequal amount of heat. On average, at + 14 ... + 16 ° C, seedlings appear after 7–9 days. This means that the sum of active temperatures in this period is approximately 116–139 ° С.
At what temperature does wheat germinate in the open field
Different varieties of wheat different conditions are needed for germination and further development.
Winter and spring differ not only in terms of planting, but also in temperature requirements.
It is best to sow winter wheat at a stable daytime air temperature of + 10 ... + 12 ° С. It is desirable that the weather is dry and warm, and there are slight frosts at night. This promotes hardening and the accumulation of carbohydrates for a favorable wintering.
With a further decrease in temperature, wheat growth stops, and when the air warms up to + 5 ° C, it resumes. Although modern varieties of winter wheat can withstand frosts down to -16 ... -18 ° С, and in the presence of snow cover - and up to -25 ... -30 ° С, sudden temperature drops during the day and at night are extremely unfavorable for plants.
For the growth of winter wheat from sowing to full ripeness the sum of active temperatures in the range 1850–2200 ° C is required.
Spring wheat begins to germinate at + 2 ... + 4 ° С, the maximum germination temperature is considered to be + 25 ... + 30 ° С. With further warming, the grains become dormant. The subsequent development of the plant occurs at a minimum of + 4 ... + 5 ° C.
Important! Without a protective snow cover, frosts of more than -6 ° C are fatal for the culture.
The sum of active temperatures for spring wheat is approximately 1600–1800 ° С from the moment the first leaf appears until it is fully ripe.
Wheat for germination
For the successful germination of cereals at home, it is not enough just to follow the instructions. The quality of the grain itself also plays an important role.
Where can I buy
It is better to buy raw materials in large supermarkets. Many producers produce prepackaged grains with a special label that they are intended for home growing. It is important to pay attention to the expiration date of the product before buying: seeds packaged over a year ago will almost certainly not germinate properly.
If you want more naturalness, it is better to buy raw materials by weight in any food market. However, in this case, it is important to contact trusted sellers, since the grains are often treated with special chemical compositions to increase keeping quality and protect against spoilage.
What grains should be
It will not be possible to determine the chemical treatment of the product with the naked eye, but there are indirect signs of quality seeds. It is better to choose smooth grains of the same shape and size with a yellowish-brown tint, dry to the touch.
A change in shape, the presence of a whitish coating, broken or cracked seeds are a sign of a poor-quality product.
How much to germinate at a time
Seeds are placed on the bottom of the tray in a thin layer so as not to block air access to the lower specimens. On average, a 40 x 40 cm tray holds about 2 cups of seeds.
While eating wheat germ is very beneficial, it's best to start with small portions. Product is bad kept even in the refrigerator, so there is no point in sprouting many grains at once. For starters, a 0.5 cup serving of dry wheat seeds per person is suitable.
How to germinate wheat at home
It's easy to germinate a grain yourself. The grains are thoroughly washed and spread in a thin layer in a container. After that, pour clean water so that it slightly covers the material. Cover everything with gauze or a light cloth soaked in water and place in a place sheltered from direct sunlight and drafts. It is very important that the air temperature is approximately + 21 ... + 24 ° С.
Wheat must be washed 1-2 times a day and before use. Usually the first shoots appear the very next day. The product is used for food when the length of the shoots reaches 1-2 mm.
Important! If the seeds are rinsed every 8 hours, no wet gauze is needed.
Tips & Tricks
It is more convenient to rinse the grains using a small sieve. Floated seeds are discarded due to poor quality.
Wheat grains that have not germinated within 2 days are unusable.
Sprouts are used as a separate meal or as a useful addition to salads and side dishes. The effect will be noticeable only with regular use. Best of all, nutrients from sprouts are absorbed on an empty stomach, especially if they are eaten with sprouted legumes, for example, wave.
Thorough chewing of the product promotes better absorption, strengthens the gums and teeth.
Sprouting wheat at home does not require a lot of time or the purchase of special equipment. Grains are unpretentious, the greatest harm is caused by high temperature, lack of moisture or fresh air. A useful product is obtained in 1–3 days; it is stored for no more than 5 days in the refrigerator.