What is the yield of barley from 1 hectare of land and what does it depend on
Barley has been cultivated by humans for several millennia along with wheat. The plant is able to withstand drought and heat up to + 40 ° C without losing the speed of filling the seed part. The crop is used as fodder for cattle and in beer production.
Let us consider the difference between winter and spring barley, what is its yield per hectare, what factors affect the productivity of plants and how to increase it.
The content of the article
Winter and spring barley
Although winter varieties are more productive, they account for no more than 10-12% of crops. The point is that such barley It is more difficult to cultivate, it does not tolerate severe frosts, and any deviation from the norm leads to the loss of part of the crop.
Nevertheless, it is winter barley has been in high demand lately. It ripens a little earlier than the spring crop and makes it possible to use the area it occupies more efficiently. The vacated territory is filled with another crop, increasing the profitability of the land. Such plants are less likely to suffer from fuses.
Reference! The fuses occur in drought and drier conditions and are manifested in complete or partial sterility or frailty of the grain.
To reduce the risk of freezing, farmers grow spring varieties. They use moisture more economically, are distinguished by a short growing season, which makes it possible to use equipment more rationally and reduce the intensity of field work. Spring barley is used as a safety net for replanting winter crops.
Barley yield per hectare
Winter barley has a high yield potential. It gives up to 60–70 c / ha, while the productivity of the spring "brother" is 20% lower.
How much barley can be harvested with natural soil fertility? Average statistical data are as follows: crop yield in severely arid years is the lowest (24–36 kg / ha), in wet years - the highest (30–42 kg / ha).
What does it depend on
Productivity varies greatly depending on many factors. If a person cannot control the weather conditions, then the choice varieties or predecessors, it will significantly affect the future harvest.
Barley is picky about the availability of mineral fertilizers. It consumes a lot of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.
The effectiveness of the application of dressings in the cultivation of crops largely depends on the precipitation. An increase in yield after the application of nitrogen fertilizers is observed in years with abundant rainfall, and decreases in dry periods. Almost the same pattern can be traced when using phosphorus and potassium.
Favorable weather is half the success in growing any agricultural crop. Drought, heavy rains, high or low temperatures, especially during the critical phases of plant growing, often lead to the death of crops.
Reference! In the countries of the European Union, the harvest depends on external conditions by 20%. In Russia this figure is extremely high - over 40%.
Monitoring and forecasting systems are used to reduce the harmful effects. In particular, the Skolkovo Innovation Center has many projects to track the relationship between weather and yield. Smart irrigation technologies with soil sensors are being developed: they analyze soil moisture, the movement of trace elements and distribute water with liquid fertilizers.There is a project on the use of polymers, which accumulate moisture in the soil and then slowly release it.
Already, a small part of farmers use the predictive technology "Smart Farming", which consists in the integrated, most optimal management of each square meter of soil.
Crop rotation is just as important as fertilization or tillage.
For the full development of barley, sufficient reserves of moisture, nutrients and a weed-free field are required. Therefore, the crop is planted after rapeseed, peas, potatoes and annual grasses.
The most valuable predecessors in terms of moisture content in the soil are early legumes (peas), less valuable are early cereals (spring wheat, barley, oats).
Sowing of spring barley is carried out in early spring, immediately after the snow melts and the soil dries up. This makes it possible to use the moisture accumulated in the soil in winter and slow down the development of weeds.
If you are late with planting, the plants will have problems with the development of the root system, as a result, ears will form during unfavorable weather conditions and the risk of disease and pests will increase manifold.
Important! Even with a ten-day sowing delay, the yield will decrease by 7-8 centners per hectare, and in dry years - by 12 centners.
There are no official norms or established sowing dates. They are based on climatic and other features of the region. The main criterion is plant frost resistance.
For winter varieties, the optimal sowing period is September: it is at this time that the highest level of germination is noted. The closer the planting date is to the first frost, the higher the risk that the plants will not overwinter. This will reduce the average yield of barley by tens of percent.
Crop care consists in harrowing seedlings during crust formation, replenishing crops and controlling weeds.
Highly productive varieties
The choice of a variety is one of the most important points. Seeds are carriers of biological and economic properties of plants. The yield largely depends on their quality.
Previously, cheap varieties were used that did not require the introduction of expensive fertilizers, but also gave a little grain. Now the choice has expanded significantly: almost 200 varieties of barley are cultivated in Russia.
The most popular winter crops: Dobrynya 3, Silhouette, Rostovsky 55, Casket, Rosava, Prikumsky 85, Kozyr.
Let's consider some of them in more detail:
- Dobrynya 3 - used for forage. The yield reaches 102.4 kg / ha. The culture is resistant to weather and climatic conditions, frost-resistant. Grows well in all types of soil. Suitable for growing in warm regions of Russia.
- Casket - gives equally high yields both in autumn and in spring planting. The yield reaches 58 kg / ha. Suitable for growing in the Stavropol and Krasnodar Territories, Rostov Region.
- Rostov 55 - a variety with excellent feed qualities. Resistant to low temperatures and droughts. Not susceptible to powdery mildew and dwarf rust. Productivity - 40-50 kg / ha. Suitable for the North Caucasus region.
- Prikumskiy 85 - mid-season, used for forage. Resistant to frost, drought, root rot. Average yield - 30 c / ha.
The most popular are the following plants: Bios 1, Abava, Belgorodsky 100, Gonar, Jin, Zazersky 85, Erofey, Veresk, Kumir, Moskovsky 86, Suzdalets, Sonet and others.
- Gin - the growing season lasts 70–85 days. The variety is grown mainly for brewing because of the high quality of the malt obtained from it. Groats boils well, has excellent texture and taste. The culture is high-yielding: it gives up to 90 kg / ha.
- Bios 1 - grain contains up to 15% protein. Productivity - from 29 to 47 kg / ha. The variety is suitable for brewing and food purposes. Resistant to many diseases.
- Gonar - gives up to 53 centners of grain.It acclimatizes well in new conditions, therefore it is grown in almost all regions of Russia and Belarus. The variety is prone to head smut, powdery mildew, brown rust. It is cultivated mainly for food and forage.
In brewing, a reduced protein content in the grain is important.
The most common varieties for this industry: Gladis, Avalon, Consita, Philadelphia, Ronnie, Quench, Scarlett, Kangu, Marnie, JB Flave, Sunshine.
Sowing quality of seeds
After selecting a variety, the quality of the seeds is determined:
- purity - the absence of impurities and defective copies;
- germination - the ability to form normally developed seedlings;
- the mass of 1,000 seeds - characterizes the full-weight and size of the planting material, the degree of its sorting;
- evenness - uniformity in weight and size.
The moisture content of the seeds plays an important role in maintaining high sowing qualities: wet specimens quickly lose their germination.
If you use seeds with a reduced germination rate, increasing the seeding rate, this will lead to a decrease in grain yield per generation. In this case, seedlings will be sparse and significantly weakened.
It is recommended to carry out exchange operations: from time to time to import seeds from other localities. Even on fertile land without such an event, the productivity of the culture decreases annually.
Terms and rules for the first harvest
Separate harvesting begins when the barley reaches waxy ripeness. As soon as the rolls are dry, they begin to thresh the grain. When a crop ripens, the spike easily breaks, and when it rains, the stem breaks. For this reason, late harvesting leads to large crop losses.
To get in the right time frame, pay attention to the following indicators:
- grain moisture - no higher than 18%;
- the grains must be firm, crackle when bitten, visually meet the standards of the variety, have a characteristic color and size, be slightly wrinkled;
- the yellow color of the straw turns into a dirty gray color;
- stem nodes are brown, hard to the touch;
- the grains are completely removed from the spikelets, but at the same time they sit so firmly that they do not fall out unaided.
A fairly effective way to preliminary determine the maturity of barley and suitability for collection is the so-called "eosin test". For this, 20 productive stems are cut at a height of 20–30 cm from the ear and placed per day in a 1% solution of eosin (a dye obtained by the interaction of boron and fluorescein).
If during the allotted time more than half of the ears have turned pink, the optimal harvest time will come in 7-10 days. If the stems are colored, the grain is harvested in the next 2-3 days. Even if the stems have not changed color, they begin harvesting immediately.
The ears are harvested in dry weather. After that, unripe seeds and other impurities are removed so that the moisture content of the crop does not increase.
Barley is a crop in demand in Russia. The yield of winter plants is 20% higher than that of spring and reaches 70 centners / ha. However, due to their low frost resistance, their share in the total volume is small. To reduce the risk of freezing of crops, spring varieties are used.
Fertilizers, crop care, pest control, predecessors, weather conditions affect the yield indicator. An important factor in increasing the volume of harvested grain is the correct timing of harvesting and gentle threshing.