Carrots - what kind of plant it is, how much it weighs, what it consists of - all about carrots
Carrots are among the top 10 most popular vegetables in the world. They began to grow it in Afghanistan for the sake of fragrant leaves and seeds. The root of the plant was eaten as early as the 1st century AD. e. The root crop was introduced to Europe and Russia in the 9th century. and gained popularity very quickly. We will tell you all about sowing carrot.
The content of the article
What is sowing carrot
Carrots are a biennial plant bred from wild species... Distinguish between table and fodder varieties. The former are eaten by humans, the latter are used to feed animals.
Which botanical family does
Carrots are a genus of plants from the Umbrella family... The plant consists of a massive root crop and a lush bunch of highly dissected feathery leaves. Blooms in the second year. Inflorescences are umbellate, with small white or yellowish flowers.
Seeds are oval, binary, flattened, up to 4 mm long, odorous, used as a spice. The leaves are added to salads or teas. The main value is a dense, juicy, sweet root vegetable with a specific aroma.
What does it consist of
The value is determined by the taste and chemical composition of the root crop.
100 g of the product contains:
- B vitamins - 1.539 mg;
- beta-carotene - 12 mg;
- vitamin A (RE) - 2000 mcg;
- vitamin C - 5 mg;
- vitamin E (TE) - 0.04 mg;
- vitamin PP (niacin equivalent) - 1.1 mg;
- vitamin H (biotin) - 0.06 mcg;
- vitamin K (phylloquinone) - 13.3 mcg;
- calcium - 27 mg;
- magnesium - 38 mg;
- sodium - 21 mg;
- potassium - 200 mg;
- phosphorus - 55 mg;
- chlorine - 63 mg;
- sulfur - 6 mg;
- iron - 0.7 mg;
- zinc - 0.4 mg;
- iodine - 5 mcg;
- copper - 80 mcg;
- manganese - 0.2 mg;
- selenium - 0.1 μg;
- chromium - 3 mcg;
- fluorine - 55 mcg;
- molybdenum - 20 mcg;
- boron - 200 mcg;
- vanadium - 99 mcg;
- cobalt - 2 μg;
- lithium - 6 mcg;
- aluminum - 326 mcg;
- nickel - 6 mcg;
- organic acids - 5 g;
- mono- and polysaccharides - 14 g;
Rich chemical composition and low calorie content provide carrots an important place in the human diet:
- The root vegetable is rich in vitamin A, which strengthens vision, improves its acuity. Only 20 g of product provides a daily requirement.
- An almost complete complex of B vitamins helps in the work of the nervous and muscular systems, participates in hematopoiesis.
- Trace elements (cobalt, vanadium, iodine, manganese) regulate the endocrine system.
- Amino acids normalize metabolism.
- Vitamin E is involved in tissue regeneration, rejuvenates the body.
- Organic acids protect against infections, are involved in the breakdown of fats.
- Magnesium and potassium improve the functioning of the heart and blood vessels.
- Anthocyanins - natural dyes, strong antioxidants - fight infections, are involved in the absorption of fats.
Carrots are included in the UN list of the most important foods for humanity.
Reference. When eating a large amount of carrots, vitamin A hypervitaminosis is possible. The daily rate is 2-3 root crops per day.
Description and characteristics
The fruit of a carrot accumulates nutrients during its growth. 2 layers are visible in the section:
- the outer (bark) is covered with skin - this is the juicy, sweet part of the carrot;
- inner core (wood) - it is more dense.
Breeders strive to breed varieties so that the wood is no more than 25-30% and in taste it was close to the bark of a root crop.
How many grams does one medium carrot weigh
The weight of carrots depends on the variety and ranges from 30 to 300 g... A root crop 15-20 cm in size has an average weight of 150-200 g.
When buying in a store, it is better to choose medium-sized, intensely colored vegetables. They have a higher concentration of nutrients.
What color is the root vegetable
There are many varieties of carrots. Root vegetables are of different colors - from white to purple... European varieties are painted mainly in red-orange colors, Asian ones - in white, yellow, purple shades.
Orange varieties were produced in Holland in 1721... They have a lot of carotene, hence the shade. In the body, the pigment is converted into vitamin A. White varieties of carrots have almost no carotene in their composition. Red carrots, along with carotene, contain lycopene, an antioxidant that breaks down fats.
The burgundy shades of the root crop owe betainewhich protects the heart and controls muscle growth.Yellow carrot contains lutein, it is needed for the eyes, heart.
For reference. The more intense the color of the root crop, the higher the content of nutrients in it.
The photo shows a multi-colored carrot.
The shape of the root can be:
- round (varieties Rondo, Parmeks, Vnuchka, etc.);
- cylindrical (Amsterdam, Lenochka, Favorite, etc.);
- conical (Alenka, Minicor, etc.).
Also, in the process of growth, root crops can take an oval shape and in the form of a truncated cone.
With drought, uneven watering, the carrots bend and the bark cracks.
The root system of carrots is pivotal, grows rapidly and develops intensively... Strong and long root grows even before true leaves form when planted. It can go to a depth of 2 m.
In the upper part, the root is fleshy, thickened. A branched network of suction roots up to 60 cm in depth departs from it. The root crop is formed from the thickening of the main root, its upper part, due to the deposition of nutrients.
What color was the carrot originally
Carrots began to be cultivated from wild species growing in the territory of modern Iran and Afghanistan more than 4 thousand years ago. From there she went to China and Japan, the Mediterranean and Europe.
Reference. The age of carrot pollen found in geological strata is 36 million years.
Ancient types of carrots were yellow and purple in color.... The leaves and seeds of the plant were used as a spice and medicine. The first cultivars were developed by the 1st century AD. e. Since that time, carrots have been eaten as a root vegetable.
In the course of cultivation, plants with sweeter roots were selected for sowing. Each season the quality of the root crops improved, they became more and more juicy. As a result of selection, many varieties with different colors of root crops were bred. In Asia, yellow and purple are still popular. They are even used for the production of spirits.
The most popular orange carrot was developed in Holland in the 17th century.... A change in the color of a root crop during selection is due to the different content of certain substances in its composition.
Carrots should be present in every person's diet. It goes well with other vegetables, cooked or fresh, and serves as a source of vitamins, antioxidants and minerals.
It is a beautiful, bright and tasty root vegetable that has different beneficial properties depending on color and color saturation.