How and when to open grapes after wintering
Novice growers and summer residents often wonder when and how to open grapes after wintering. Specific timing and methods depend on climatic and weather conditions, plant variety, shelter method and other factors. In the spring, it is important to properly care for the crop, treat it from diseases and protect it from return frost.
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When to open grapes after winter
Grapes are not a greenhouse culture, so they do not wait with them until warm weather sets in. Before the start of sap flow, most varieties withstand temperatures up to -4 ° С.
Here it is important to protect the developing kidneys from recurrent frosts: they die at the slightest drop in temperature below 0 ° C. The grapes are opened only after the snow melts and the soil dries out.
Specific opening times for grapes vary from region to region... On average, this is the first decade of April, but at different latitudes the period ranges from mid-March to the end of May. In general, they are based on weather conditions.
Optimal weather conditions
They open the bushes on a clear sunny day, let the vine air and dry properly.... Precipitation on opening day is highly undesirable, but spring weather is difficult to predict. Therefore, using the forecast of weather forecasters, gardeners choose a period of 3-4 days when precipitation is not planned.
If the winter was snowy, and the drifts do not leave the site, 2 weeks before the procedure gently clear the snow accumulated on the shelter. In this case, the soil will dry out faster. The material itself is removed when the threat of frost has completely disappeared.
In some regions, daily temperature drops are observed in spring from + 15 ° С to -5 ... -7 ° С. In order not to destroy the waking vine during this period, the plants are opened for a day, and in the evening they are again insulated with foil or other material.
Important! If the average daily air temperature is + 10 ° C, the grapes are opened in full mode, since the buds will start to grow anyway.
Depending on the region of cultivation
In the conditions of the Volga region and the middle zone the shelter is removed in the first decade of May. Adult shrubs that have survived at least 4 winters open in late April - early May.
- in southern latitudes - the first decade of April;
- in Crimea - late March - early April;
- in the northern regions - mid - end of May.
In the Urals frosts sometimes return even in June - July. This does not mean that local gardeners do not open the grapes all spring: in a short summer, this does not make sense.
All spring events are carried out as usual, but they keep a non-woven material or film ready for prompt warming of the vine in case of a cold snap.
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Why is it important to remove shelter in time
Many gardeners consider return frosts to be the main problem when opening grapes, so they remove the material later. This is an erroneous position, since the lack of sunlight will not prevent the shoots from starting to grow.
As soon as the temperature around the bush reaches + 10 ° C, the buds will begin to wake up right in the shelter... After late harvesting, the stems on overwintered vines will be weak and pale from lack of sun.If they are not shaded, the leaves will immediately receive sunburn, and such shoots are not viable. To save them, additional shelters are erected from the sun's rays, and the plant gradually adapts to the light.
When retrieving vines from a shelter with already awakened buds and fragile shoots, there is a high risk of damaging them.
Attention! Be careful and careful when using film as a covering material: it creates a greenhouse effect and a favorable environment for mold growth.
How to clean the shelter correctly
Methods for freeing bushes from winter insulation are used depending on the method of covering used:
- If the grapes have been spud, carefully shovel off the soil so as not to damage the root of the vine. The layer of mulch in the aisles is leveled and mixed with the soil: this will accelerate decay and feed the plant weakened after winter. The soil is loosened with a rake to give oxygen access to the roots.
- When using partial or full cover, the bushes are freed from mats, films, burlap and carefully cleaned the vine from the ground. Experienced growers temper the shrubs by making a few holes in the material, but do not remove it until warm weather sets in. Experienced growers are not in a hurry with the garter of the vine - as long as it is enough just to spread it on the ground and let it dry.
- If there is a risk of a decrease in the night temperature to below zero, at night the plants are insulated with spruce branches or pine needles. Agrofibre is suitable: it is thrown over the bush and the edges are fixed.
If precipitation is not expected, after opening the vine is left for 2-3 days, then carefully tied up, cutting in parallel and forming bushes. This garter is called dry: it is carried out before the juice begins to move, until the kidneys begin to swell.
How to care for grapes after opening
After removing the insulation, a number of measures are taken to maintain the plants after wintering.: cut off bushes, remove damaged shoots, thin out and shape the vine, treat grapes from diseases and fertilize.
How to process
Even before the buds awaken, the vine is treated for fungal diseases, especially mildew and powdery mildew.:
- A 2% solution of copper sulfate has proven itself well. To prepare the composition, 200 g of the drug are diluted in 10 liters of water. Filter the product through a thick sieve or gauze so as not to clog the spray nozzle. Spray the vine from a spray bottle and let it dry naturally. The procedure is carried out in calm dry weather at an air temperature of at least + 5 ° C.
- In the same period, with deep digging, nitrogen fertilizers are applied: ammonium nitrate, potassium chloride and superphosphate. Instead, they use complex drugs. When choosing a concentration of substances, instructions are followed.
- A little later, when the buds wake up, organic fertilizers are applied: peat, humus, rotted manure, bird droppings and others.
In order for the fertilizing to be absorbed by the plant faster, it is better to introduce them into the root zone., making a shallow groove in a circle at a distance of 40-50 cm from the center of the bush. The agent is poured into the recess and poured abundantly with water. To retain moisture for a long period, the groove is covered with soil.
What to do with spring frosts
In case of recurrent frosts, shrubs are assisted immediately.... The best option is the presence of a gardener during this period at the summer cottage. On large plantations, growers often make fires with thick smoke.
This method is tedious, but effective: they “smoke” all night until the air temperature rises to at least 0 ° C. How many cold nights the unstable spring nature will prepare is difficult to predict.
Another way to protect - Evening watering of the grapes, in which the vine remains dry.When the temperature starts to drop, the soil will give off condensation, accompanied by the release of heat. As a result, the plants will find themselves in a cloud of water vapor, which will help the bushes resist freezing. Wet soil, even by morning, will be at least 1 ° C warmer than dry soil.
Important! This method is not often used so as not to provoke plant decay from waterlogging of the soil.
The most reliable way to keep open vines from freezing is agrofibre... This non-woven covering material accumulates heat on the ground surface and has good breathability. Depending on the density, it protects the bushes from frost down to -7 ° C.
Landings are covered with spunbond and the edges are pressed down so that the fabric is not blown away by the wind... Trellis for tying grapes are used as a frame.
To open grapes after wintering, climatic and weather characteristics are taken into account. Fertilizing and treating diseases will improve plant health, and protection from return frost will increase productivity. Even if the grapes did not endure the winter well, competent help during the awakening period, proper care and prevention of diseases will restore the bushes and will soon delight them with an excellent harvest.