Step-by-step instructions on how to plant raspberries in the spring correctly for novice gardeners
Planting raspberries is a simple matter, but it requires meeting deadlines. It is important to be in time before the onset of sap flow and heat. In the south of Russia, planting work begins in March, in the middle lane - in April, in regions with severe weather conditions - in June. How to plant raspberries in spring, what method is best for this, how to care for raspberries in the future and how to avoid mistakes, read the article.
The content of the article
- Planting raspberries in spring
- When to plant raspberries
- Choosing a landing site
- Preparation of planting material
- How to plant raspberries in spring
- The nuances of planting remontant raspberries
- Further care
- Mistakes when growing raspberries
Planting raspberries in spring
Raspberries are an unpretentious and popular culture. It is grown everywhere, and planting dates are determined depending on the weather conditions in the region.
Most gardeners prefer to plant young shrubs in the spring. The main advantages of spring planting are that the seedlings grow strong and healthy, and take root quickly due to warm weather. Before the onset of cold weather, young plants have time to form a stem, fruit buds, and adventitious roots. Thanks to this, many fruit-bearing shoots will appear on the bush next season.
Reference. In the spring, common and large-fruited varieties of raspberries are planted.
Autumn planting is performed in the event of an early and dry spring, since in conditions of a lack of moisture, the plant will quickly dry out.
When to plant raspberries
In the south of Russia with its mild climate, planting is often done in autumn. Saplings manage to take root in a new place before the onset of the first frost. In the spring, they grow quickly and actively gain green mass. Those who prefer spring planting begin preparatory work in March - early April.
In the north and in the regions middle band raspberries are planted in spring, not earlier than April. This time of year is characterized by high humidity, which stimulates the survival of young plants in a new place.
In the Urals and Siberia raspberries are planted in late April - early May.
Auspicious days according to the lunar calendar in 2020 and 2021
Many summer residents use the lunar calendar to determine the optimal timing for planting raspberries.
Auspicious days in spring 2020:
- March - 26-29;
- April - 11-15, 24, 25;
- May - 2-10.
Unfavorable dates are the days of the full moon and new moon, as well as when the moon is in Aquarius, which is considered the most barren sign.
Unfavorable days in spring 2020:
- March - 9, 19-21, 24;
- April - 8, 15-17, 23;
- May - 7, 13-14, 22.
Favorable days for spring planting in 2021:
- March - 4, 7, 17, 18, 22, 23, 26-30;
- April - 13-15, 19, 28;
- May - 4, 7, 16-18, 22, 23, 30.
Unfavorable spring days in 2021:
- March - 1-5, 13;
- April - 1-3, 11, 12;
- May - 1-11, 27-31.
Choosing a landing site
Raspberries can grow and bear fruit for a long time in one place and rarely needs a transplant. The place for planting seedlings should be well lit by the sun and be protected from cold, gusty winds... Raspberries are often planted along house walls or fences. The culture can grow in shaded areas, but the shoots will constantly seek the sun and form buds on the young tops. These rudiments will freeze in winter and will not give the expected harvest in summer.
The best neighbors of raspberries are fruit trees such as plum, apricot, and apple. It is not recommended to plant shrubs next to black and red currants. Raspberries will inhibit their development, which will lead to lower yields.
On alkaline and too acidic soil, the culture stops growing and develops, does not produce fruits. It is not recommended to plant raspberries in an area where raspberries were previously grown. Spores of fungi and pest larvae often remain in the soil. You can't plant bushes after strawberries, since both crops have a common enemy - the raspberry-strawberry weevil.
Preparation of planting material
The future harvest of raspberries depends on the quality of the seedlings. When choosing them, it is recommended to pay attention to the rhizome - it must be fully developed. The root system of a healthy seedling is fibrous, about 15 cm long.
For beginners in gardening, there are seedlings with closed roots on sale. They are sold in pots or dark bags with soil. Such seedlings are carefully examined before planting, cut off dry, rotten and damaged roots. Then the rhizome is dipped in a clay mixture and left to dry in the open air.
The ideal soil for raspberries is a light loam with a low acidity of 5.5-6.5 pH. It is prepared in the fall. The list of mandatory procedures includes digging to a depth of 30-40 cm, removing weeds, feeding wood ash. Experienced gardeners recommend sowing green manure (lupine, clover, flax, oats, rye), and mowing it in the spring and embedding it in the ground.
Before planting raspberries on sandy loam or sand, the soil is additionally fertilized with organic matter - 6-8 kg of humus or manure per 1 sq. m. In combination with organic dressing, potash fertilizers (30-40 g per 1 sq. m) or superphosphate (50-60 g per 1 sq. m) are often used.
How to plant raspberries in spring
Raspberries are planted in two ways - bush and trench. Let's tell you more about each one.
In another way, this method is called planting in pits, while the bush forms 6-12 developed stems. The seedlings are placed around the support. The distance between the bushes is 50-70 cm, and the row spacing is 1.5-1.8 m. The distance can be increased depending on the type of raspberry. Some require more space, as their shoots are very prolific.
2-3 weeks before planting, pits are prepared with a depth and width of 30-40 cm. 10 liters of rotted humus mixed with soil are added to each of them.
You can add to the formula:
- 50 g superphosphate;
- 30 g of potassium sulfate,
- 100 g bone meal;
- 200 g of wood ash.
5-10 cm of clean soil is poured on top and a seedling is placed, carefully straightening the roots. The root collar is not buried when planting. The trunk circle is leveled and mulched with hay, straw, peat, dry foliage.
The tape method is the most common, but more labor-intensive. The bushes are planted in prepared trenches, which gives the raspberry tree an aesthetic appearance and allows you to collect more berries than when grown by the bush method.
The distance between the seedlings is 30-50 cm, the row spacing is 1.8-2 m.A trench with a depth of 0.4 m is dug at the site.A mixture of 30 g of superphosphate, 20 g of potassium salt, 3 kg of manure is thrown at the bottom. sq. m. Pour 5-10 cm of clean soil on top.
- A recess is made in the soil so that the rhizome fits.
- The ground is watered with clean water, the seedling is set vertically.
- A support is placed next to each seedling and tied up.
- The roots are completely covered with soil and lightly tamped.
- The bushes are watered abundantly and keep the soil moist for 2-3 days after planting.
They arrange trenches from south to north so that in the morning the eastern part receives a sufficient amount of sunlight, and in the afternoon - the western one.
The nuances of planting remontant raspberries
How to plant remontant raspberries correctly? The advantage of these varieties lies in the fact that the first fruits are formed on the annual shoots from the end of August to the middle of September. At the end of the season, the aerial part of the stem is removed, which, in turn, significantly increases the plant's immunity.
Repairing raspberries they are planted in the same way as the usual one - in a tape or bush method. In the south, planting is performed in the second decade of March, in the regions of the middle zone - at the end of March, in Siberia and the Urals - in the middle of summer.
The plot is chosen at a distance of 0.5-1 m from outbuildings and fences. This will make it easier to care for the bushes in the fall.
Repaired raspberries prefer drained loam. Before planting, the soil is intensively loosened, watered and fertilized with peat or humus.
A distance of 30-60 cm is maintained between the seedlings. When planting by the bush method, two seedlings are placed in each hole.
Raspberry care is as follows:
- After planting, the seedlings are shortened up to 15-25 cm, if they have not been cut by the seller. Without this procedure, the plant will spend all its energy on building up green mass, which will lead to depletion of the rhizome. Replacement buds do not form on the roots, from which young shoots should appear in the new season.
- The trunk circle is mulched hay, mown grass, peat, sawdust. The height of the layer is 5-7 cm. This prevents the appearance of a dry earth crust, which slows down the penetration of moisture and nutrients. Mulch inhibits the growth of weeds, acts as an organic top dressing.
- Raspberry, especially remontant, loves moisture, therefore, one of the main tasks of the gardener is to provide her with regular, abundant watering. To maintain the optimum moisture level, it is recommended to install a drip irrigation system, and arrange sprinkling on especially hot days.
- If you follow the recommendations for fertilizing the soil when planting, you do not need to feed raspberries in the next 2-3 years. Further, organic matter (wood ash, humus) and potassium-phosphorus fertilizing are introduced into the soil.
- In autumn after harvesting or in early spring, pruning of bushes is performed. The main work front is carried out in the fall, and in the spring - sanitary pruning.
- To limit the growth of shrubs and reduce grooming procedures to a minimum, it is recommended to dig in slate sheets in the aisles, roofing iron or any other similar material to a depth of 0.5 m.
- In regions with a harsh climate, the bushes are tilted towards each other and tied so that the frost does not damage the shoots. Tarpaulin or agrofibre is used as a covering material.
- If the raspberries are planted with bushes, the shoots are tied up in a fan-like manner so that they do not break under the weight of the fruit. For this, two pegs are driven in between the bushes, to which the shoots of neighboring bushes are tied at different heights. When planting in a tape manner, a trellis garter is used: a wire is tied to the supports in several rows and the shoots are fixed so that they are located at a slight slope.
- First spring pest control performed after the shoots regrowth to a height of 15 cm. For spraying, use a solution of "Karbofos" or colloidal sulfur, infusion of tansy, garlic, onion husks.
Mistakes when growing raspberries
Despite the fact that raspberries are very unpretentious, novice gardeners face some problems when growing them.
Let's consider typical mistakes:
- planting low-quality material;
- failure to meet the landing dates (too cold or too hot);
- selection of a shaded area;
- non-observance of the rules of crop rotation;
- planting in nutrient-poor soil;
- thickened planting of bushes;
- deepening of the root collar;
- excessive application of organic matter;
- lack of a garter;
- ignoring the spring and autumn trimming;
- lack of preventive treatments for diseases and pests.
If you follow the recommendations for planting and caring for a raspberry tree, there will be no problems with it. What experienced gardeners advise:
- Raspberries prefer fertile soil, but do not like excess nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus. Try to follow the dosage and do not overfeed the plant.
- For better wintering in late autumn, add 3 g of zinc sulfate and 5 g of manganese sulfate per 1 sq. m.
- Cut the shoots that have completed fruiting at the root in the fall. Do the same with green shoots and growths, they still do not have time to ripen. As a safety net, you can leave 20% of the fruitful branches. Thus, you will receive the supply necessary for the future development of the bush.
- In early fall, gradually reduce watering to a minimum and then stop completely. This stimulates the lignification of the shoots and helps the raspberries survive the winter.
- Spraying 2% Bordeaux liquid with the onset of frost will help to increase the winter hardiness of the plant. If it snows, throw it over the bushes or cover it with agrofibre.
- Do not forget to remove plant residues from the site. Insects and fungal spores winter in them. With the onset of spring, they activate their vital activity.
- After the snow melts, treat the bushes with a 5% solution of Bordeaux liquid to prevent the spread of insects.
Raspberries are often planted in the spring. Depending on the region, planting work is carried out from March to June. In autumn, the bushes are planted mainly in the south or when spring is early and dry. The most popular planting methods are bush and trench. It is important to adhere to the recommendations and observe the distance between the seedlings.
Repaired raspberry varieties are planted in the same ways. Before planting, the soil is loosened, fertilized with organic matter and minerals, and watered abundantly with clean water. Caring for the raspberry tree consists in abundant watering, applying dressings 2-3 years after planting, gartering bushes, pruning in spring and autumn, mulching the trunk circle and treating diseases and pests.