How to properly prune raspberries in summer in July and why you need it
Raspberries are a low-maintenance shrub, but regular pruning is recommended to maintain health and good looks. In summer, there is an active growth of young shoots and a set of green mass. Even bushes cut to the root in the fall grow rapidly. Side shoots draw out juices and thicken the planting. In the thickets, the setting of ovaries is suspended, the growth of pathogenic flora is activated. Summer pruning strengthens young shoots, increases the defenses of the plant and helps to survive the winter.
From the article, you will learn whether it is possible to prune shrubs in July, how to prune remontant raspberries and how to properly care for the plantation after the procedure.
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Pruning raspberries in summer in July
Summer raspberry pruning is one of the most important steps in bush care. During this period, the plant actively grows young shoots, which leads to thickening of the plantings, makes it difficult to access the future harvest and creates a moist environment inside the bush.
As a result, the risk of spreading fungal infections and insect pests increases. Therefore, summer pruning is essential to maintain plant health, increase productivity, and improve aeration inside the bushes.
To have a good harvest, gardeners use the double pruning method. At the beginning of June, the tops of no more than 7 cm are removed on shoots 1-1.2 m high, which stimulates the supply of nutrients to the lateral buds. In autumn, young shoots up to 50 cm long will appear on them.
Before the onset of cold weather, young branches are bent to the ground and covered with non-woven fabric to protect them from frost. In spring, lateral shoots are shortened by 10-15 cm to stimulate the growth of new fruiting branches.
Raspberry pruning is aimed at rejuvenation, shrub formation, disease prevention and productivity.
To increase the yield of common raspberries, cutting out obsolete branches is practiced. The peculiarity of this type of culture is in the formation of fruit buds in the second year after planting.
After fruiting they die off, but are replaced by new stems growing from the root system. After timely pruning at the end of summer, young shoots will give a large harvest next season.
For the prevention of diseases and insects, sanitary pruning is performed... Thick undergrowth is regularly removed to ensure optimal aeration inside the bush and sunlight. Preventive pruning helps prevent the development of diseases such as mosaic, anthracnose, curly leaves, powdery mildew. Removing the old two-year-old shoots makes it easier to pick the fruit and improves its taste. Thanks to the best illumination, the fruits grow large and sweet.
The formation of the correct bushes at the same time contributes to the rejuvenation of the plant. After pruning, it looks neat: the number of thorny branches decreases, and young shoots develop better. At the same time, the correct formation of the bushes increases the yield.
Timing of pruning
July raspberry pruning is performed in dry weather - the shoots will warm up and dry out. In this form, they are easier to cut with a pruner without splitting the plant fibers.
Adherents of gardening according to the phases of the moon are advised to adhere to the lunar calendar.
Favorable days for pruning raspberries in July:
- Feb 2020- 1-3, 7-12, 14-18, 22-31;
- 2021 - 4-8, 13-17, 19-23, 27-28, 31.
How to prune raspberries correctly
In order for raspberry pruning to take place without losing the productivity and quality of the bushes, experienced gardeners recommend using a sharp tool, disinfecting compounds and acting strictly according to the instructions.
Equipment for pruning raspberries is pre-disinfected to prevent fungal infections. For gardening use:
- Garden shears or pruning shears to remove young growth.
- Lopper for cutting thick branches.
- Knife for correcting uneven areas.
- Rake for collecting shoots and foliage.
- Medical alcohol, vodka, kerosene, 3% solution of copper sulfate or potassium permanganate for disinfection of equipment.
Raspberry pruning technology:
- Broken and diseased branches are removed completely - at the root, without leaving hemp.
- Weak shoots that do not have time to ripen before the onset of cold weather are cut off completely.
- Two-year-old stems are removed so that they do not shade young shoots.
- Thickened plantings are thinned out, weeds are pulled out, excess bushes are cut down, digging in the trunk circle.
- Young shoots are removed every 2 weeks using a shovel. It is stuck into the ground at a slight angle and the roots of a young sprout are cut.
- Annual shoots are thinned out, no more than 8 stems are left on the bush.
- The shoots are shortened by ¼ so that the height is no more than 1.5 m.
Features of pruning regular and remontant raspberries
To increase the yield of crops in the regions of the middle lane, gardeners use the Sobolev method... Gardening works begin in late May - early June. Shoots 80 cm high are cut by 10 cm to enhance the development of lateral branches by stopping the growth of the top.
At the end of summer, 8 branches are formed on the bush. In the next season, the young side stems will reach 50 cm in height. In the future, they are shortened by 15 cm. The Sobolev pruning method turns ordinary raspberries into a remontant variety, which bears fruit until the end of September.
Experienced gardeners use the triple pruning method - cut bushes in spring in summer and autumn. By the end of the next growth period, two-year-old stems are removed, the remaining shoots are thinned out.
Repaired raspberries are especially popular among gardeners as they yield several harvests per season. Fruits form on annual stems, which are cut at the root at the end of fruiting.
In the south of the country, remontant raspberries are not cut in July, all gardening work is transferred to autumn. In the regions of the middle lane, pruning of this type of culture is performed in the spring. It is not recommended to carry out the procedure earlier - young stems will germinate, and winter hardiness will decrease.
Reference. Raspberry Cumberland is distinguished by its black fruit and fast growth. To increase productivity, two-meter stems are shortened by 20 cm, and young shoots are removed at the growing point at the end of June.
Nuances for bushes of different ages
Common raspberries of summer varieties are planted in spring or autumn. The seedlings are shortened to 30 cm, planted with a ribbon method and wait for the first leaves to appear, which indicates that the plant has taken root. The main shoots growing from the roots are cut to ground level so that they do not interfere with the growth of young branches, on which fruits will appear next season.
Weak, sick, damaged, excess stems are cut without regret, because they are the sources of infection. The freer the shoots are, the larger the fruits. They are better warmed up by the sun, blown with air and do not rot. In autumn, all shoots are carefully tied to a trellis to facilitate further care for the raspberry tree. Long shoots are bent in an arc.
In the second and subsequent years, the tied up shoots are cut to a strong bud in the spring before the start of sap flow... The procedure is aimed at stimulating lateral fruiting shoots.In summer, a standard rejuvenating and shaping pruning is performed.
Recently, gardeners have been practicing a new technology for pruning raspberries, which allows them to increase their yield with fewer bushes. The technology involves cutting young shoots twice. The procedure is performed in June-July, depending on the region of cultivation (in the south they start earlier, in the north and in the regions of the middle lane - later).
Young shoots of the first year of development will grow by 1-1.5 m, they are cut off 5-7 cm from above... This approach stimulates the development of side shoots. In early spring, a second pruning is performed - the central conductor and side shoots are pruned. At the time of budding, the raspberry bush will take shape and look neat - with many side shoots.
Installing a trellis is a mandatory procedure aimed at supporting the branches covered with large fruits. If this is not done, the branches may break.
Raspberry is a moisture-loving shrub. For this reason, after pruning, it is necessary to maintain an optimal water balance in the plant. Raspberries love moderately moist soil, do not tolerate moisture deficit and excess. In summer, especially in dry weather, the bushes are additionally watered from a hose or installed on the plantation with drip irrigation.
In conditions of moisture deficiency, the shoots dry out, the flower ovaries crumble. Dried roots lead to the death of the entire bush. Raspberries are watered 1-2 times a week from the end of May until the beginning of fruiting, avoiding stagnant water. This causes root rot and reduced yields.
For raspberries, sudden changes are dangerous - from complete drying out of the soil to stagnant water. Gardeners recommend forming a small mound of land in the area of the trunk circle or board fence to retain moisture.
Reference. Mulching helps keep the soil moist, increase its fertility, and inhibit the growth of weeds and root suckers of the bush. A thick layer of mulch prevents the spread of the shoot gall midge.
Mulch is laid out on the surface of the soil and periodically replaced with fresh mulch. Gardeners use rotted manure, peat, humus, straw or hay. It is recommended to add nitrogen under the straw to compensate for its loss during its decomposition.
The soil in the near-trunk circle is loosened to a depth of 4-6 cm, in the aisles - 10-15 cm. The thickets reduce the productivity of raspberries, the fruits grow small and sour. The soil is loosened carefully so as not to damage the root system. The use of mulch eliminates the need to frequently loosen the soil and inhibits the growth of weeds.
Raspberries respond gratefully to organic feedings in liquid form. The preparations "Baikal EM-1" and "Gumat EM" for shrubs with micro and macro elements are especially popular among gardeners.
Mineral fertilizers are applied in early spring and in June, potassium-phosphorus fertilizers - in July. Instead of potassium, wood ash is often used - 100-150 g per 1 m². For foliar feeding in July, a urea solution is used (1 tbsp. L. Per 10 l of water). The solution is applied over the foliage in the evening.
After harvesting, all fruiting branches are removed. If left, young shoots will not be able to develop normally in their shade. Young and strong branches are left.
The fruits are harvested once every 2-3 days. They should be ripe and firm. Overripe fruits lose their taste and creep into porridge. Some gardeners recommend picking raspberries every day. The best time for harvesting is dry, cloudy days, morning or evening.
Basic fight against diseases and insects lead in early spring and late autumn.
At the first signs of infection in the summer, it is recommended to proceed as follows:
- During the budding period, the bushes are treated with a decoction of tomato tops. The remedy is effective against the raspberry-strawberry weevil. After harvesting, the plant is sprayed with a 0.7% solution of "Karbofos".
- If blue stains are found on young shoots, it is recommended to act quickly - cut off the affected shoots and burn them away from the plantation. This is a sure sign of a raspberry gall midge infection.
- Free soil is dug deep into the aisles to destroy pest nests. This procedure is effective against flower beetle (raspberry-strawberry weevil), stem fly (affects the tops of shoots), shoot gall midge, spider mite.
Experienced gardening tips
When growing raspberries, beginners have some difficulties, which will help to cope with the advice of gardeners with rich experience:
- If light green or light yellow leaves appear on the bushes, feed the raspberries with nitrogen.
- Fatty shoots with dark green leaves indicate an excess of nitrogen.
- Small brown leaves indicate potassium deficiency, which ultimately reduces the plant's winter hardiness. Thin and weak shoots indicate a lack of phosphorus.
- If the tops of the leaves turn yellow, feed the raspberries iron.
- Avoid intensive growth of shoots - this leads to thickening of the plantings, deterioration of air circulation inside the bush.
- Remove diseased and dry shoots promptly to maintain plant health.
- Remove young shoots more than 20 cm from the center conductor every 2 weeks.
Summer raspberry pruning in July is one of the most important care procedures. Removing fast growing young growth, dry and damaged branches helps maintain the health of the bush. A pleasant bonus of July pruning is an increase in productivity, an improvement in the taste of fruits due to optimal air circulation inside the bush.
Thinning of raspberries ensures that the berries are warmed up by the sun's rays. Further care for the raspberry tree consists in moderate watering, the introduction of organic and mineral top dressing, mulching, loosening the near-trunk circle and row spacings, timely harvesting.