A beginner's guide to pruning currants correctly in the fall
The list of autumn garden work includes currant pruning. Proper preparation of the bush for the winter season affects further yield. Before starting the procedure, they study the pruning technology, the optimal timing of its implementation, the rules for caring for the bush after mechanical stress. If the recommendations are followed exactly, pruning currants in the fall for novice gardeners will not be a problem.
The content of the article
- Why cut currants in the fall, what does it give
- Optimal timing of the procedure
- Types of trimming
- How to properly trim currants
- Pruning features
- Slicing processing
- Further care
Why cut currants in the fall, what does it give
During the spring-summer season, the currant bush actively grows and bears fruit. In autumn, the movement of the juice stops. The leaf shedding period signals that it is time to prune. During this time, the plant experiences minimal stress from shortening the shoots. Autumn pruning of currants allows you to prepare the bushes for winter.
Is it necessary to trim
Currant pruning is a mandatory procedure... On the bushes, fruit buds appear only on branches up to 5 years old. Old branches are lean, every year they dry up more and more and interfere with the normal growth of young shoots. They are cut out. Sick and pest-affected shoots are also subject to removal.
An autumn agro-technical procedure heals the plant, increases the size of the berries, improves their taste and productivity. During the procedure, the shrub is given the correct shape.
Optimal timing of the procedure
The autumn procedure is carried out immediately after leaf fall and the end of sap flow. This usually happens in late October - mid November, before the onset of frost.
Pruning times vary depending on the region of growth. In the Moscow region, frosts begin in mid-November, so the procedure is carried out in the last days of October. In Siberia, in the fall, there are often sudden changes in temperature, so experienced gardeners recommend holding an autumn event in mid-September.
When is the best time to prune - in spring or autumn
The best period for pruning a fruiting bush is autumn... During the season, the shrub actively grows, young shoots appear on it. On some, many berries are formed, others are not fruitful. Unproductive branches take nutrients from the bush and create shade for fruiting shoots. These branches are removed after the end of the season. In the spring, you can make a mistake with the choice of productive branches.
Types of trimming
Young currant bushes grow quickly - after 2 years they grow and begin to bear fruit. After 4-5 years, the shrub becomes overgrown, loses its shape, the berries become smaller. The plant needs adjustment. There are several types of trimming. Depending on the purpose, it is divided into formative, rejuvenating, sanitary.
To achieve high yields, the shrub is formed by pruning. It is necessary for the proper development of the plant, preventing thickening, creating better conditions for the growth of new shoots. Pruning of a developed, fruiting plant is carried out annually.
Reference. A fruiting shrub should have 12-13 branches of different ages.
To form such a plant, three-year-old bushes leave 3-4 developed and evenly spaced branches. The purpose of the formation is to create a bush with a wide base for lighting and ventilation of the central branches. Thickening of the plant can lead to the formation of powdery mildew. In thickened bushes, berries ripen only at the tops of the stems.
With subsequent pruning, strong young shoots are left, which grow closer to the edge of the bush. At the same time, the central shoots are removed, expanding the base of the bush. Weakened, excess, tilted to the ground, diseased shoots are also subject to removal.
Branches older than 5-6 years cease to bear fruit, they are also cut out.
Rejuvenating pruning is done to increase the lifespan of the shrub. It is made after 8 years of plant life - at this age, the yield is at a low level.
Attention! When carrying out the procedure, it is important to learn how to distinguish annual shoots from older branches. The young shoot has no branches, it is light green in color. Branches older than two years are dark brown in color, they have branches.
During the rejuvenation procedure, old, dried stems are cut out to the ground, dusting the cut with wood ash.
Anti-aging crop pruning can be carried out partially, within 2-3 years, or dramatically, at a time. The first method is used for 8-10 year old shrubs, the second - for old and diseased plants.
During partial pruning, remove a third of the old branches. First, cut out dry, sore areas. The next year, remove excess, incorrectly growing branches. In the third year, young healthy shoots will grow in place of the removed old branches, the fruiting of the bush will increase.
If the plant is older than 8 years, most of the branches have dried up, complete rejuvenation is carried out. In this case, all branches are cut off to the base, and the cuts are processed with wood ash. The rest of the ground part is mulched with sawdust, straw, peat to prevent freezing in winter. With the onset of spring, the roots are watered with "Fitosporin" and fed with organic matter, re-growing a young bush.
During sanitary pruning, broken and damaged branches are cut. Remove diseased parts of the bush affected by insect pests. In case of severe damage with powdery mildew or glassworm, the stems are removed, cut out at the very base, and burned. If the tops of the plant are damaged, they are cut off, capturing a small section of a healthy stem.
How to properly trim currants
To increase the fruiting of the bush and its correct formation, the procedure is carried out before the onset of frost, when the plant begins a dormant period.
The following rules are observed:
- pruning is done only after the bush has dropped all the foliage;
- the procedure is carried out in dry weather;
- a disinfected, sharpened instrument is used for the procedure;
- do not break off branches with their hands;
- do not cut the shoot close to a healthy bud (this will lead to the death of the entire shoot), the recommended distance from the bud to the cut is 0.5 cm;
- do not leave hemp, dry branches are cut to the level of the soil;
- the branches are shortened to the nearest external bud;
- the cuts are made at an angle of 45 °.
Required materials and tools
All necessary tools are disinfected and sharpened. After pruning diseased branches, the tools are disinfected to prevent infection of the remaining shoots.
For the autumn event you will need:
- secateurs for cutting thin and medium-thick branches;
- garden knife for getting even cut edges on thin shoots;
- small-toothed hacksaw for removing old, thick stems;
- lopper (thanks to long handles it is convenient to remove hard-to-reach branches from the middle of the bush);
- hedge trimmer for cutting branches of various thicknesses and giving the bush the required shape;
- fan rake for collecting leaves and cut branches;
- garden gloves.
Trimming scheme: step by step instructions
After the end of the leaf fall, the planned pruning of the bush begins. To do this, perform the following work:
- Clears the near-trunk circle from fallen leaves and weeds.
- Cut off dry and mossy branches.
- Broken, diseased, diseased or insect-damaged plant parts are cut out.
- Branches are removed that rest on the ground, growing deep in the bush, not fruiting, short, with immature wood.
- Thin the central part of the shrub so that the middle branches are evenly illuminated by the sun and ventilated.
- One-year-old growths are shortened by 5-6 cm.
- Shoots older than 5 years are cut, 3-year-old branches are shortened.
- 5-6 of the most powerful shoots are left, the rest are removed.
After processing, all cut branches are removed, the soil around the bush is loosened, fertilize, cover with a layer of mulch.
To maintain the desired shape of the shrub, trimming is carried out annually. Immediately after planting, the stems of a young seedling are cut off, leaving 2-3 healthy buds. At the same time, make sure that the upper bud is directed to the outside of the bush. This is necessary in order for the shoots to form in different directions.
In the second year, 5 powerful shoots are chosen, the rest are removed. In the third year, the branches of the first and second years are not touched. Select 5 new strong shoots with the correct growth direction. Get rid of root growth. In the fourth year, the pruning scheme of the third year is repeated. In the fifth year, the bush is rejuvenated. At the same time, non-fruiting branches are cut out.
As a result, 15-18 branches of different ages should remain on a healthy fruiting bush.
Reference. Some gardeners create bizarre shrub shapes, for example, in the form of a pyramid or a vase. For decorative design, a standard method of plant formation is used.
Shrub pruning varies according to age and crop variety.
To trim young currants, check the condition of the shoots that have formed during the season. If the branches grow small, thin (less than 0.6 mm), they are cut shortly, leaving 3 buds above the ground. Of the grown strong, thick shoots, 3-4 of the longest and most powerful are left, the rest are cut out at the base.
The green tops are shortened on the stems - they will freeze in cold weather. For the winter, only woody stems are left.
An old currant bush aged 8-13 years is rejuvenated by thinning:
- All dry, broken, diseased and damaged parts of the plant are cut out.
- Remove shoots that rest on the ground, interfering with the growth of correctly placed branches.
- Weak, non-fruiting branches are cut out to the base, on which no growth is formed.
Black / White / Red
Pruning of black currant is carried out more often than red and white. The growth of shoots in the black variety is more active, fruiting occurs at 3-4 years. White and red currants bear fruit fully on 6-7-year-old branches, but if growth per season on age branches is less than 15 cm, they get rid of these branches.
Black currants begin to rejuvenate after 5 years of life, red - after 8 years. The shortening of the apical shoots is carried out only on the black variety, in white and red currants, fruits are formed on the upper branches, therefore they are not touched. Rejuvenation of white currant is carried out at the age of 13-15 years.
Processing the sections prevents the penetration of infection into plant tissues damaged during pruning. Before processing, they wait until the juice ceases to stand out, and the cut dries up.
On the sawdust smoothed with a garden knife and cleared of sawdust, a garden pitch is applied. To prepare the product, take 6 parts of rosin, 3 parts of wax, 1 part of turpentine and 2 parts of propolis. Propolis and wax are melted in a water bath, rosin is added. Stir, bring to a boil. Then it is cooled and mixed with turpentine. The resulting mass is applied to slices.
How to care for bushes after pruning? Before wintering, the land around the plant is dug up and fertilized, since during fruiting the shrub spent all its strength... Phosphate-potassium fertilizers are used for feeding. Phosphorus and potassium promote the growth and strengthening of the root system, increase the plant's frost resistance, and raise immunity.
Attention! Before fertilizing, the soil is watered with water to prevent root burns. 10-15 liters of water are added under each bush.
Prepare the composition: 30-35 g of ammophos and 1 glass of ash are diluted in 10 liters of water. Under one plant, use 2-3 liters of the resulting solution.
For prevention, the bushes are treated with "Karbofos" against pest attacks.
Preparing for winter
In regions where snowless winters are usually accompanied by severe frosts, the trunk circle of a one- and two-year-old plant is insulated with sawdust or spruce mulch with a layer of 8-10 cm. For an adult plant, this procedure is optional.
In areas characterized by heavy snowfall, gardeners tie the bushes with a rope to prevent the thick layer of snow lying on the bushes from breaking off the branches. To preserve the currant bush, they are wrapped in a circle with a strong rope, pulling all the branches to the central part of the bush, and the rope is securely fixed. With the onset of spring, the rope is removed.
Autumn pruning of currants is carried out regardless of age and variety. Adhering to the advice, novice gardeners can also carry out the procedure. Compliance with the scheme and rules of the autumn event increases the yield of the crop and prolongs the fruiting age of the bush.