How and what to spray currants in the spring from pests and diseases
Processing currants in spring and autumn are mandatory stages of plant care. The procedure protects the shrub from bacterial, fungal and viral diseases, strengthens the immune system, stimulates growth and improves the taste of berries. It is important to follow the recommendations and dosages, carry out the treatment in the morning or evening, and also monitor the appearance of the plants. What means are effective in combating diseases and pests, we will tell in the article.
The content of the article
- Purpose of spring and autumn currant processing
- What pests threaten currants
- Dangerous diseases
- Processing time
- Preparatory activities
- How to spray in autumn and spring
- How to properly carry out spring processing of currants
- Are there any nuances in the processing of black, red and white currants
Purpose of spring and autumn currant processing
The main purpose of spring and autumn processing is to protect against diseases and pests. Only healthy currant bushes give a full and tasty harvest. In spring, with the arrival of heat, fungal spores and other microorganisms are activated, which provoke the occurrence of diseases and insect pests. When processing it is important to comply with the deadlines; it is not recommended to postpone the procedure for a long time.
In the fall, after harvesting, currants need to recuperate and prepare for the winter period. Gardeners spray the bushes with the aim of increasing frost resistance, eliminating pests, healing and rejuvenating.
What pests threaten currants
In early spring, currants are threatened by scale insects and leafworms. Insect larvae hibernate in the soil and are frost-resistant. Scabbards enter the garden with infected seedlings, soil, wind, birds or rodents. Insects suck juice from currants, damage leaves, shoots and even berries. The bushes gradually dry out and wither, and in the meantime, the scale insects move to other garden plants. After the pests, a yellow sticky bloom remains on the bushes, which flows down to other leaves.
Leaf rollers appear on shrubs mainly in warm and humid weather. For currants, it is not so much adult butterflies that are dangerous as caterpillars. Gray insects can destroy all currant bushes if measures are not taken in time. The reasons for the appearance of the leaf roll: acidic soil, lack or excess of minerals, excessive watering. Signs of damage are dry and thin leaves, deformed fruits, yellow and brown sores on shoots and leaves.
Dangerous pests include currant kidney mites. They get rid of insects not only by spraying, but also harvested by hand. Kidney mites suck out the juice from the plant, and also carry a dangerous disease - currant terry. If the bush is sick, it cannot be treated; gardeners can only remove it and burn it.
Attention! On currant bushes there are spider mites, aphids, gall midges, moths, moths, sawflies, glass moths. To see most insects, it is important to inspect the currants regularly. Many pests are very small, so it is difficult to spot them unless they are examined.
Currants are affected by anthracnose, rust, white spot. The reasons for the appearance of anthracnose are fungal spores that winter on fallen leaves, and with the arrival of spring they spread throughout the garden. In infected currants, the shoots become sluggish and slow in growth. Brown spots appear on the leaf plates - the main sign of anthracnose damage. In dry and warm weather, cracks appear on the shoots, which eventually rot.If the anthracnose reaches the berries, they become covered with small black dots and fall off. Fungal diseases are most often found on black currants.
Rust occurs due to waterlogging, weeds, infected plants growing next to currant bushes. Orange-brown spots appear on top of the leaves, yellow pads appear below. It is in them that the fungus lives, which is waiting for suitable conditions for development. Rust spreads through the bush rapidly: if the plant is not treated, soon all the leaves will be covered with orange fluff.
White spot - This is currant septoria, which affects berries, leaves and young shoots. The first signs of the disease occur in early May: dark brown spots with a brown border are formed on the leaves, which turn white over time. In the early stages of infection, gardeners remove the leaves and burn them, and the bush is thinned and sprayed. Septoria occurs mainly in the middle zone of Russia, favorable conditions for the development of the fungus - humidity, weather changes, fog. In addition to the diseases listed, currant bushes are affected by reversion, American powdery mildew, black spot, goblet rust.
Dates processing depend on the region in which the currants are grown. In the northern regions, the bushes are sprayed later, since spring comes there 2-3 weeks later than in the southern ones. Gardeners recommend processing plantings in late March or early April, when the air temperature is around + 16 ° C. For the procedure, choose the morning or evening of a dry and windless day. If it rains after the treatment, there will be no benefit.
Attention! The safest way to protect currant bushes from diseases and pests - carry out processing all year round. In addition to manual removal of damaged areas, summer residents use spraying with urea, Karbofos, ammonium nitrate, Bordeaux liquid, infusion of tobacco, nettle, and laundry soap.
After fruiting, the currants are processed in late August or early September. Summer residents bring in mineral and complex fertilizersto strengthen the plant's immunity and prepare it for the winter period. From mid-October to the first snow, they bring organic matter: chicken droppings, mullein infusion, liquid manure. Autumn processing ends by spraying the bushes with a solution of Bordeaux liquid.
In the spring, processing is carried out after shrub trimming - after the snow has melted and until the kidneys wake up... If you cut the bush after they have swollen, it will injure the plant and reduce the yield. A garden pruner is used for pruning; breaking branches with your hands is not recommended. First of all, massive branches that are covered with moss, lichen, ulcers, as well as dry 4- and 5-year-old shoots are removed. After that, branches are cut, which are strongly inclined to the ground and those that grow inside the bush. Young shoots are shortened by 1/3, leaving buds. This way they branch better.
When pruning, it is important to remember the differences between black and red and white currants - the amount of the future harvest depends on this. Black currants are pruned more often because their branches grow faster. In white and red, the growth of zero shoots is not so intense, they bear fruit stably even on 5-7-year-old branches. Also, in black currant, it is not recommended to greatly shorten the tops. In addition to pruning, gardeners clean their beds of last year's foliage, weeds and debris. The effectiveness of the procedure depends on this.
How to spray in autumn and spring
For processing use:
- chemical and biological preparations - for prevention and treatment, they are purchased in specialized stores for gardeners;
- folk medicines are prepared from improvised means, used for prophylaxis, treatment with copper or iron vitriol, ash, and Bordeaux liquid is popular.
Purchased chemicals are aimed at treating diseases, the active ingredients act quickly. For the treatment of fungal diseases, fungicides "HOM" or "Abiga-peak" are used. Complex fungicides treat powdery mildew and anthracnose, are composed of inorganic substances and copper. Another popular chemical is Tiovit Jet, a sulfur-based contact fungicide that is used at the beginning or middle of the growing season. The drug is good because it only needs to be diluted with water for preparation.
To protect against rust and white spot use the chemical Topaz. It is made on the basis of penconazole, a pesticide that inhibits the development of dangerous bacteria. The systemic fungicide "Topaz" is used for prophylactic and therapeutic purposes, it retains its effect for 4 years. Stops the development of bacteria and fungi within a few hours after treatment.
To protect against all types of fungal diseases use the fungicide "Trichopol". Gardeners claim that the drug works flawlessly and protects currants with a 100% guarantee. Trichopolum is sold in tablets that are ground into powder and mixed with water.
Biological preparations are based on living bacterial cultures that suppress harmful fungal infections. Biological agents are less aggressive than chemicals. Gardeners use them for preventive and curative purposes.
The preparation "Fitop" helps against diseases and insect pests. It strengthens and heals the root system of the plant, increases productivity and yield, inhibits the growth and development of pathogenic microflora on fruits and shoots. Also "Fitop" is used for disinfection of planting material. The drug is sold in powder form. "Fitop" is not harmful to the environment and humans.
Summer residents use Fitosporin against fungal and bacterial infections. The microbiological agent acts immediately after processing, it is used during any growing season. "Fitosporin" inhibits the development of powdery mildew, root rot, anthracnose. The drug is affordable and economical in consumption, it is available in the form of powder, paste or liquid.
Attention! Effective in using "Lepidocide". The drug copes with all pests, affects their reproductive function. "Lepidocide" is used at any stage of plant development, it does not accumulate in the soil and does not affect the taste of berries.
Traditional methods have a preventive effect. It is important to remember that if the bushes already have signs of damage, it is useless to use alternative methods for treatment. In early spring, the bushes are watered and sprayed with boiling water. Scalding helps the plants to wake up and also gets rid of the larvae that hibernated in the soil in winter. For the greatest effect, baking soda is added to the water - 3 tbsp is required for a bucket of boiling water. l. In the future, the soda solution is used to eliminate aphids.
To prevent the appearance of insects, gardeners use garlic infusion - 300 g of garlic are poured into 10 liters of water. The mixture is infused for a day, diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 1. Garlic is sprayed with currants in dry weather. To enhance the effect, 50 g of grated laundry soap is added to the solution. The infusion of tobacco also helps: 400 g of dry leaves are poured into 10 liters of water, insisted for 48 hours, diluted with water and spraying is started. Other popular remedies are also popular: treatment with iodine, ash, mustard infusion and wormwood decoction.
How to properly carry out spring processing of currants
Summer residents carry out the processing of currants in the spring from diseases and pests with the help of hand or knapsack sprayers. Gardeners prepare the solution in advance. If it is a chemical or biological product, it is important to read the directions for use and dosage. An oversupply of chemicals will negatively affect not only the plant, but also human health.If folk remedies are prepared, the time for preparing the infusions is observed. They are unsuitable for long-term storage, therefore, summer residents prepare a fresh solution before each procedure.
Do not forget about precautions, especially when it comes to chemical spraying. Gardeners spend it in a protective suit, glasses and a respirator. During processing, it is forbidden to eat or drink, children or animals should not be near. If the treatment comes into contact with the skin, eyes or mouth, it is recommended that you seek immediate medical attention. Pregnant or lactating women are not allowed to be processed. Store chemicals well closed and out of reach of children.
Are there any nuances in the processing of black, red and white currants
Some pests prefer a certain type of currant. For example, goldfish most often appears on black, and leafworm on red. Gall aphids are more often seen on white and red, as well as sawflies, which do not like the dense foliage of black currants. A kidney mite is a frequent visitor to black berries. Otherwise, there are no differences in processing.
Processing currants in the spring from pests and diseases is a simple process; the main thing is to remember a few features. Before spraying, the shrubs are pruned, old and dry shoots are removed, and space is given for the development of new fruiting branches. Processing is carried out with folk, biological and chemical means. Tobacco and ash solutions prevent the appearance of pests, "Fitosporin" protects against fungal and viral diseases. Chemicals such as "HOM" or "Topaz" are intended for the complex treatment of most diseases.
For processing, summer residents choose a dry and calm day. Do not forget about precautions: during treatment with drugs, use an apron or protective suit, gloves, glasses and a respirator.