How to plant and grow grapes at home
Grapes are often grown in a tub method. This method is suitable not only for greenhouses and open ground, liana is able to grow and bear fruit even in indoor conditions.
The grapes grown in a pot can fulfill an exclusively decorative function or become a full-fledged fruit crop. It all depends on the method of planting, care and formation of plants. Is it possible to grow grapes at home and what nuances you should know about - later in the article.
The content of the article
- Is it possible to grow grapes at home on a windowsill
- Ways of planting grapes in an apartment
- The best grape varieties for home cultivation
- How to plant a seedling in a pot
- Caring for grapes at home
Is it possible to grow grapes at home on a windowsill
Growing grapes at home is a way to decorate an apartment and treat yourself to delicious fruits... The plant has beautiful leaves with five cuts and is easy to form. With correct and timely pruning, it can be given any shape.
Decorative varieties differ not only in their beautiful shape, but also the unusual brown color of the leaf plates. During the fruiting period, plants decorated with blue or white clusters look especially unusual.
Ways of planting grapes in an apartment
How to grow grapes? There are two ways - generative and vegetative... In the first case, seeds collected from fruits are sown into the ground, in the second, petioles or layering are rooted.
Reference.There is also a grafting method for growing grapes. It is used when a plant with large juicy fruits wants to be grafted onto a frost-resistant root. This method is difficult to implement and is used only in large vineyards, it is not used at home.
At home, most often they use the cuttings method of growing grapes.... Correctly prepared cuttings of the vines take root easily and give the first harvest already 2-3 years after planting the seedling.
Cuttings are bought on the market or received on their own... To do this, 8-15 cm recede from the end of the vine and a cut is made. The resulting pruning should have at least 2-3 live buds. Last year's branches and shoots of the current year will do.
Before cutting the shoot, it is checked for diseases.... There should be no stains, damage or flaking. The place of the cut on the mother plant is treated with garden varnish.
Cuttings soaked for 1-2 hours in a light pink solution of potassium permanganate... Then they are rolled in sawdust, wrapped in foil so that the ends remain outside, and placed in the refrigerator. There they will lie until spring.
Important! In the process of storing the shafts in the refrigerator, the sawdust is periodically checked. If they turn black, they are removed. The cuttings are again treated with a solution of potassium permanganate, rolled in new sawdust and wrapped in a clean film.
In April or early May, start rooting of seedlings (chubukov). Before that, a part of the bark is removed from the edge of each. If a green layer is found under it, it means that the planting material will take root.
Chubuki are soaked in water for 48 hours. After that they are dried and started to root:
- A thick layer of gauze is placed on the bottom of the glass. A crushed tablet of activated carbon or a pre-prepared light pink solution of potassium permanganate is poured onto it. An amount of water is poured into a glass so that it slightly covers the gauze.
- A handle is placed in a glass and covered with a cut bottle or plastic bag.
- When the roots appear and the stalk grows 1-2 cm, it is planted in the ground.
Growing from a bone
Growing vines from seeds is more difficult... This process takes much longer and allows you to harvest no earlier than 5-7 years after planting.
Seeds rarely grow the same variety from which the planting material was collected... Usually, wild grapes are obtained in this way.
But plants grown from seeds are distinguished by their unpretentiousness and increased resistance to diseases, cold snaps and lack of light. They are much easier to care for.
Important! Seeds are harvested only from ripe fruits.
The collected planting material is prepared:
- Calibration... The seeds are sorted out, all small, thin and damaged specimens are thrown away. Bones with spots, traces of mold and an uneven color are also discarded.
- Germination test... The planting material is soaked for half an hour in warm water. Those bones that sink to the bottom are suitable for planting. The floating instances are thrown away.
- Disinfection... The seeds are soaked for 30 minutes in a light pink solution of potassium permanganate or hydrogen peroxide.
- Growth stimulation... So that the seeds germinate faster, they are soaked for 6-12 hours in a growth stimulator. Use purchased ("Epin") or folk (aloe juice) remedies.
- Hardening... The bones are removed in the refrigerator for 3-4 weeks. They are rinsed every 7 days under running water.
- Germination... Cracked specimens are laid out on a piece of damp gauze in a saucer, covered with foil and placed in a warm, bright place.
After the seeds germinate, they are planted in the ground.... Sprinkle on top with a thin layer of earth. The soil is moistened and covered with foil. Plants dive in individual pots after the first leaves appear.
Interesting on the site:
The best grape varieties for home cultivation
Not all varieties are suitable for growing at home.... It is recommended to choose undersized or medium-sized early maturing grapes - they will bear fruit twice a year.
Varieties that are suitable for growing on a window:
- Red delight;
- Indoor Muscat;
- Malengr early.
How to plant a seedling in a pot
A seedling grown from a cuttings or purchased from the market, it is recommended to plant in spring... During the active growing season, it will take root and develop faster.
Before planting grapes, choose a suitable planting material. Seedlings should have a developed root system, firm but elastic bark, and live roots. The trunk height is above 2 m.
Preparation of the substrate and container
For the seedling to take root, prepare the soil... The soil should be loose and fertile. Peat, humus and river sand are mixed in equal proportions. A glass of ash, 35 g of superphosphate, 35 g of urea and 20 g of potassium salt are added to 10 kg of soil mixture. Mix the ingredients thoroughly.
When growing grapes in an apartment, drainage will be needed: fine expanded clay or crushed stone, broken ceramics, special filler.
The soil and drainage are disinfected: calcined in the oven, poured with a dark pink solution of potassium permanganate or boiling water.
For the first planting, a container with a volume of 4-5 liters is enough... In the second year, the vine is transplanted into a pot with a volume of at least 8 liters.
Containers are also disinfected - wipe with a dark pink solution of potassium permanganate or a product made from a bucket of water and 1 tbsp. l. copper sulfate.
Planting grapes at home is a short-lived process:
- The roots of the seedling are cut by a third. Soak in a light pink solution of potassium permanganate for 30 minutes and for 2 days in a root formation stimulator "Kornevin".
- A layer of drainage 1-2 cm high is poured onto the bottom of the pot.The rest of the space is filled with soil so that 2-3 cm remain free to the edge.
- The seedling is buried in the ground so that it can stand without support. The lower part of the trunk is spud to make a small mound.
- The plant is watered abundantly with warm water, covered with film or a cut-off part of the bottle.
- The seedling is watered as the soil dries. When watering, the vine is sprayed.
- When the buds begin to open on the plant, the film is removed.
Caring for grapes at home
Grapes are an unpretentious plant, they do not have to pay much attention., only carry out basic activities.
Conditions for growth
The plant is provided with optimal conditions... This will reduce the likelihood of contracting infections and accelerate its growth:
During the growing season, room temperature is suitable for the growth of grapes.... The optimal range is considered to be within + 19 ... + 25 ° С. In winter, the liana feels comfortable at temperatures from 0 to + 10 ° С.
With moisture less than 70%, the vines begin to dry... The risk of infection with fungal infections and spider mites increases. To create optimal conditions, the liana is sprayed with warm water once a week. In winter, a humidifier or containers of water are placed near the pot.
Cultured grapes are picky about light... It is grown on southern or southwestern windowsills. Wild grapes thrive in shade. He is kept near the north or southeast window.
If the room is cool enough in winter for the plant to enter a dormant state, additional lighting is not required. If the room is warm and it is planned to obtain a second harvest, in winter, fluorescent lamps are used, located at a distance of 20 cm from the pot.
Note! With a lack of light, the grapes will not die, but they will not set fruit either.
During the growing season, the grapes are watered 1-2 times a week.... The hotter it is in the room, the more often. For irrigation, use warm settled water. Moistening the soil with cold water is the main reason for the development of root rot.
During the fruiting period, the number of waterings is reduced... The soil is moistened no more than once every 10 days. In winter - no more than once every 2 weeks, provided that the room is cool. If the room is warm, water the grapes as usual.
It is recommended to water the plant from a watering can - in this way the liquid penetrates into the ground more easily and at the same time loosens the ground.
Top dressing and fertilizers
So that the grapes on the windowsill develop quickly, do not get sick and give fruits, make feeding according to the scheme:
- The first top dressing is in early spring. The fertilizer contains potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen. Home remedy option: 1 kg of chicken manure, 9 liters of water, 25 g of superphosphate and 20 g of potassium salts.
- The second and third dressings are applied in the summer, before the fruits reach their maximum size. The product must contain potassium salts and phosphorus.
- The fourth time, fertilization is applied when the berries reach their maximum size. Use a preparation containing phosphorus, potassium and other elements other than nitrogen.
- The last time in the season the grapes are fed in the fall. A complex mineral fertilizer is used that does not include nitrogen and chlorine.
The day before top dressing moisten the soil.
Shaping and trimming
Formation is carried out in autumn or early spring... The strongest new shoots are left on each new branch. They are divided in pairs. One vine of the pair is left untouched, and the second is cut so that at least 3 buds remain on it.
After the end of fruiting, the long vine is cut... Shoots sprout from a small pruning, which are formed according to the method described above.
Sanitary pruning is done every fall: remove old, dry parts of the plant affected by diseases and pests.
It is interesting! If you shape grapes like a tree, they will make a beautiful bonsai.
Transfer and transshipment rules
Before the first fruiting, the grapes are transferred into a freer container annually... To do this, it is removed from the pot along with a lump of earth, a few centimeters of the top soil and drainage is removed. A drainage layer is poured at the bottom of the new pot and the plant is immersed along with a clod of earth. The missing volume is filled up with soil. The grapes are watered.
After the first fruiting, the vine begins to transplant... This is done once every 2-3 years. When transplanting, the plant is removed from the pot and at least a third cleared of the earth. Sick and damaged roots are removed. Drainage is poured into the pot, grapes are placed there, and the free space is covered with earth. The soil is moistened.
After transplanting, the plant is kept in a shaded place. within 7 days. This will help him adapt.
Vines need support... To do this, they are allowed to go through a window or tied to a rope stretched at an angle.
Grapes are able to grow not only in open ground or greenhouses. It is even cultivated in pots on windowsills. This is done not only because of its decorative appearance, but also due to its ability to produce crops even in an apartment.
The plant is provided with optimal conditions for development and the basic rules of care are observed: fertilizer is applied once a month and watered once a week.