What are technical grape varieties and which are the best
Technical grape varieties are the basis for future wine. Experienced winemakers say that the best berry for the production of this drink is one with a juicy, sugary pulp hidden under the skin. The yield of such varieties is 75–85% of the total mass of fruits. In the article, we will tell you about the best technical and table grape varieties, depending on the ripening period, skin color and growing region.
The content of the article
Technical grape varieties - what does it mean
Technical grape varieties - is a group of plants whose fruits are used to make wines, juices, compotes, pickles, vinegars, cognacs, production of raisins, cinnamon.
Distinctive the peculiarity of such grapes is high juice content (75-85%) and looseness of the bunch... The type of final product depends on the sugar content and acidity of the berries. The higher the percentage of sugar in the peel and pulp, the more suitable the variety is for making wines and cognacs.
The appearance of the bunch and berries of technical varieties does not play a role, in contrast to table varieties. The main value is chemical and mechanical compositions, which depend on biological characteristics and growing conditions culture. When the same grapes are planted in different climatic and soil conditions, gardeners receive crops for different industrial purposes.
Top varieties with description
Technical grape varieties groups of the Black Sea basin are common in Russia: Rkatsiteli, Saperavi.
For the preparation of wines, varieties of the Western European group are used: Chardonnay, Pinot Grigio, Pinotage, Riesling, etc.
Rkatsiteli - Georgian technical grade, part of the Black Sea basin group.
- young shoots and first 2 leaves, pubescent, gray-white, with a pink border;
- leaves are green, with a bronze tint, medium size, 3- and 5-lobed, slightly dissected;
- annual ripe shoots are dark brown, with a red tint;
- flowers are bisexual;
- clusters of medium size (length - 13-15 cm, width - 7-8 cm), medium density;
- the shape of the brush is cylindrical-conical and cylindrical;
- bunch weight - 150-170 g;
- berries of medium size (length - 15-18 cm, width - 13-14 mm), round or oval, weight - 18-25 g;
- the skin is thin but firm, golden yellow, with a bronze tan;
- the pulp is juicy, with a pleasant peculiar taste;
- yield - 80–110 c / ha;
- juice yield - 80%;
- sugar content - 17.5-18 g / l, acidity - 7-9 g / l.
Grapes used for the preparation of white table wines, vintage Rkatsiteli, brandy and juices.
Technical grade Chardonnay originally from France (Burgundy and Champagne), popular in Germany, Hungary, Switzerland, USA, belongs to the group of Western European varieties.
- young shoots are light green, with pinkish blotches;
- young leaves are colored light green with a gray tint, the subsequent ones are light green with a golden tint;
- the back of the leaf is covered with a gray spider web;
- leaf blade of medium size, round, five-lobed;
- flowers are bisexual;
- clusters of medium size (length - 11-13 cm, width - 8-10 cm);
- the shape of the bunch is cylindrical-conical, the structure is loose or medium-dense, weight - 90–95 g;
- berries of medium size (diameter - 12-15 mm), round and slightly oval;
- the skin is thin but firm, green-white, with golden tan, waxy bloom and brownish specks;
- berry weight - 12-13 g;
- the pulp is juicy, with a delicate aroma;
- yield - 60–70 c / ha;
- juice yield - 74%;
- sugar content - 18-23 g / 100 ml, acidity - 8.2-11.6 g / l.
Chardonnay used for making white table wines with tones of lemon and apples, vanilla, oak and smoke.
Muskandel - an ancient technical native to France, also grown in Spain and Australia.
- young shoots are green-white, with a dense tomentose edge, annual light yellow, darker at the nodes;
- leaf blade of medium size, medium or slightly dissected, three-lobed, with sharp teeth;
- the back of the leaf is cobweb-bristly;
- flowers are bisexual;
- a bunch of medium size (length 18-19 cm, width 8-10 cm);
- winged or wide-conical brush shape, medium density;
- bunch weight - 100-150 g;
- berries of medium size (diameter - 10-15 mm), round, yellow-green, with a slightly pink tinge when overripe;
- the skin is thin, the waxy coating is weak;
- the pulp is tender and juicy, the taste is delicate nutmeg, the weight of the fruit is 13–18 g;
- yield - 30-60 kg / ha;
- juice yield - 88%;
- sugar content - 22-24 g / 100 ml, acidity - 8 g / l.
Harvest used for the preparation of vintage dessert wines, grape juice, fresh use.
White Muscat - ancient technical grade native to Syria... It is part of the group of oriental varieties, popular in Italy, France, Spain, Bulgaria.
- young shoots are strongly pubescent, painted in gray-green color with a wine-red tint, annual ripened light brown, dark on the nodes;
- leaves of medium size, round, 3- or 5-lobed, dissected, funnel-shaped;
- the back of the leaf is covered with cobweb and bristly edges;
- flowers are bisexual;
- medium-sized clusters (length 13–17 cm, width 7–9 cm);
- the shape of the bunch is cylindrical or cylindrical-conical, the structure is dense, weight - 105-450 g;
- berries of medium size (diameter - 10-17 mm), round, often deformed, yellowish-golden hue;
- medium density peel;
- the pulp is tender and juicy, the aroma is nutmeg, strong, there are 2-3 seeds in the berry;
- yield - 64–110 c / ha;
- juice yield - 75%;
- sugar content - 18–32 g / 100 ml, acidity - 6.5–10.7 g / l.
Harvest is used for cooking:
- vintage dessert wines with a bright aroma of citron and tea rose: South Coast White Muscat, Dessert, Koktebel, Livadia, Krasny Kamen, Magarach;
- sweet and table wines, Muscat champagne;
In Italy, Asti and fine sparkling wines are produced under the name Moscato Bianco. In Australia, drinks are made from a dark brown nutmeg variety.
Crystal - Hungarian technical early ripening variety.
- medium-sized bushes;
- leaf blade of medium size, dark green color;
- brushes of medium size, cylindrical-conical or conical, medium density, weighing 170-200 g;
- berries of medium size, oval, yellow-green or white with a prune bloom, weighing 1.5–2 g;
- the pulp is tender and juicy, the skin is dense;
- sugar content - 17-18%, acidity - 6-7 g / l;
- yield - 100-110 kg / ha.
Berries used for making dry sherry.
Saperavi - old variety originally from Georgia, belongs to the group plants of the Black Sea basin.
- young shoots are white-pink;
- young foliage is yellow-green, with a pink tint;
- annual ripe shoots are light brown, with a gray tint;
- leaf blade of medium size, round or ovoid, 3- or 5-lobed, with raised edges;
- the back of the leaf is covered with a thick felt edge;
- flowers are bisexual;
- bunch length - 13–17 cm, width - 12–15 cm, wide-conical loose shape;
- bunch weight - 95-100 g;
- berries of medium size (length - 12-18 mm, width - 12-17 mm), oval, weighing 120-150 g;
- the skin is thin, dark blue, covered with a thick bluish bloom;
- the pulp is juicy light;
- the taste is pleasant, refreshing;
- yield - 90-110 c / ha;
- juice yield - 80–86%;
- sugar content - 17–20 g / 100 ml, acidity - 7.8–12.6 g / l, in the south of Crimea the sugar content reaches 28 g / 100 ml.
Isabella - popular table-technical variety with such characteristics:
- perennial shoots are covered with reddish coarse-fibrous bark;
- leaves are large, rounded, three-lobed or solid, the surface is smooth, the color is dark green, the back side is green-white, with a dense edge;
- flowers are bisexual;
- yield - 13-15 c / ha;
- clusters of medium size, cylindrical or cylindrical-conical, medium-dense, less often loose;
- bunch weight - 80-300 g;
- berries are large (16x15 mm) oval, weight - 4.5–5 g;
- the skin is dense black, with a bluish bloom;
- the pulp is pinkish viscous, the taste is sweet and sour, with a rich strawberry aroma.
Isabella grape excluded from the State Register of the Russian Federation due to lack of competitiveness.
Gurzuf pink - variety for universal use, characterized by early ripening.
- bisexual flowers;
- clusters of medium size, cylindrical or cylindrical-conical, loose structure, weighing 200–250 g;
- berries are medium, round, dark red;
- the skin is thin but dense;
- the pulp is fleshy and juicy;
- the taste is pleasant, the aroma is nutmeg;
- yield - 150 kg / ha;
- sugar content - 25.5-29%, acidity - 6-7 g / l;
- tasting score - 7.9-8 points.
Table grape varieties by maturity
Table grapes used mainly for fresh consumption... There are plants with a ripening period of 100-110 days and ultra-early varieties, the berries of which ripen within 3 months after budding.
Gardeners appreciate them for their strong immunity and early maturity. These are new hybrid forms.
Early grapes are cultivated in the south and north of the country. He manages to gain sugar content in 3–3.5 months.
Popular early varieties and hybrids:
- Early Russian;
- Super Extra;
- Black cherry;
- Beauty Seeds;
- Raspberry super;
Canteens mid-season varieties are grown in the southeast of the Chernozem region, Kuban, in Crimea.
Important! In the Stavropol region, the Volga region and the central regions, such species need additional feeding, prevention of fungal infections and shelter for the winter. Harvested in September.
- Autumn black;
Late-ripening varieties are suitable for cultivation in the south of the country, in areas where the positive temperature at night remains until the end of November. The ripening period for such varieties is 150-165 days.
Table late grapes are grown in the Voronezh, Bryansk, Rostov, Belgorod regions, in the Krasnodar Territory and Crimea... Late varieties are not very sensitive to frost and are resistant to fungal infections.
- Odessa souvenir;
- Transportable Muscat;
By fruit color
Table grapes are also distinguished by the color of the berries.
The table shows the best plants according to wine growers and consumers.:
|Long awaited||Gourmet Krainova||Assol|
|Cocktail||Rochefort||In memory of the teacher|
|Russian corinka||Alexander||Early Magaracha|
|Muscat Moscow||Arcadia||Donskoy agate|
|Russian amber||Brigantine||Mountain goat vine|
|Larni nutmeg||Shasla pink||Lowland|
|Early white||Bogatyanovsky||Frumoasa Albă|
|Shasla white||Beauty of the North||Winner|
For different growing regions
When choosing a variety of table grapes for certain regions, gardeners pay attention to frost resistance, ripening period, drought resistance and exactingness to the composition of the soil.
For Moscow region, regions Middle lane and Leningrad region plants that are resistant to frost and powdery mildew are suitable: Julian, Aleshenkin Dar, Korinka Russian, Muromets, Bogatyanovsky, Libya, Helios, Transfiguration, Moscow Black, Tason, Tukay.
Reference. All known varieties of table grapes are successfully grown in the southern regions of the country.
For growing in Siberia suitable early winter-hardy varieties and hybrids with a short growing season (100 days), resistant to temperature extremes: Rapture, Rusven, Moldova, Codryanka, Russian early, Riddle of Sharova, Krasa Severa, Muromets.
How to choose a technical grape variety
When choosing the right plant, it is important to consider that the same variety behaves differently. in each region taken separately.
It all depends on the temperature and composition of the soil. For example, the rocky soil grows the ideal grapes for the production of vintage cognacs and fortified wines.
Selection criteria for technical grades:
- frost resistance - for the zone of sheltering viticulture;
- the rate of vine ripening at the time of pruning (end of October) determines the reliability of the variety and the success of wintering;
- ripening period - ultra-early and early varieties are suitable for the covering viticulture zone;
- resistance to diseases and pests (powdery mildew, phylloxera);
- the need for normalization affects the yield;
- taste, color, sugar content and acidity affect the taste and aroma of the final product;
- the sum of active temperatures required for full ripening of the berries will determine the planting site.
Old technical grapes
Old technical grape varieties remain at the peak of their popularity. They are appreciated for their excellent berry taste, productivity and distinctive varietal aromas..
List of popular vintage varieties:
- Ayren - Spanish white variety. Differs in drought resistance, high vigor, large rounded berries of almost white color. The crop is used for the production of brandy, young light dry wines with hints of citrus.
- Grenache Noir Is a popular Spanish grape. Differs in high sugar content, small rounded dark blue berries, used to make fortified wines.
- Cabernet Sauvignon - old French technical grapes. Berries are medium-sized, dark blue in color with abundant prune, high sugar content and nightshade flavor. The crop is used to produce long-lasting red wines.
- Krasnostop Zolotovsky - ancient Don grapes. Differs in small rounded berries of dark blue color with a thick bloom, used for the production of red table wines.
- Malbec - French technical grade. Fruits are medium in size, dark blue, almost black in color. The crop is used to produce velvety, lively wines with a high alcohol content.
- Merlot - French technical grade. The berries are medium-sized, dark blue in color with dense prune and colorless juicy pulp. It is used for the production of table and dessert wines.
- Pinot noir - French (Burgundy) grapes. Differs in rounded dark blue berries with dense prune, juicy colorless pulp. Used for the production of the famous red Burgundy wines.
- Pechistik - Don mid-season variety. The berries are small, flattened, with a dense dark blue skin and colorless juice. Tsimlyanskoe sparkling wine is made from it.
- Riesling Is a German grape variety.Fruits are roundish green-white with a yellowish-brown tan. The harvest is used for the production of wines with bright tones of minerals, aromas of copper and lime, flowers.
- Tempranillo Is a famous Spanish wine variety. The berries are medium in size with a thin skin of dark blue color. The vintage is used to make durable and high quality wines with spicy tones.
- Shiraz (Syrah) - French old grade. Differs in oval or rounded berries of almost black color. The crop is used for the production of tannin, dark, peppery wines.
In Russia, these include the ancient varieties of the North Caucasus and the Don. In Italy, the popular grape, which occupies 8% of the total area of vineyards, is Sangiovese.
In New Zealand, 60% of the area is grown Sauvignon Blanc, in France 14% of the land is Merlot. In the USA, Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon varieties are valued.
Technical grape varieties are used for the preparation of wines, juices, compotes, pickles, vinegars, cognacs, the production of raisins, and cinnamon. The top of the best varieties include Chardonnay, Rkatsiteli, Muscandel, White Muscat, Isabella, Crystal. Winemakers all over the world highly value ancient wine varieties: Shiraz, Tempranillo, Riesling, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Pinot Noir. The technical grapes of Plechistik and Krasnostop are grown in Russia.
Table varieties with white, pink, dark skin are used for fresh consumption. The choice of grapes depends on the climate of the region, soil composition, ripening period, taste, resistance to cold and disease.