Growing grapes for beginners

Grapes are among the first plants that humans began to cultivate. It was grown by the ancient Romans and Egyptians. Now it is popular all over the world. Grapes grow successfully in both southern climates and central regions. If in the first case it is possible to grow varieties with large delicacy fruits, then only hardy varieties with small berries with a dense skin and a tart taste can cope with a cool climate.

The technology of growing grapes, especially in temperate climates, has a number of nuances. In order to get rich yields every year and not lose plants during winter frosts, it is important to know how to care for it. However, if you figure out all the subtleties and follow the instructions, even a novice gardener can create your own vineyard.

Features of the growth of grapes

It will be easier for beginners to understand the principles of viticulture if you understand the characteristics of plant growth... This will allow you to understand what kind of care the shrub needs at different times of the year.

The lifespan of a grape depends on its variety and method of propagation. Thus, wild specimens grown from seeds are able to grow and bear fruit for over 400 years. Plants grown vegetatively continue to bear fruit for 25 to 150 years.

Growing grapes for beginners

How quickly a plant begins to bear fruit also depends on how it is grown. With the seed planting method, the plant bears fruit for 5-6 years after planting. When growing grape cuttings the first crop will be harvested in 2-3 years. When using layering and grafting, the berries will appear in the first year.

From the germination of the grape seed to the termination of the growing season, the plant goes through a long development cycle, which is divided into stages:

  1. Growth. The shortest period, the duration of which is from 1 to 5 years. During this time, the plant develops in preparation for fruiting.
  2. Development and fruiting. The longest period. It lasts longer than 25 years.
  3. Weakening of productive and growth function... This is expressed in the absence of new shoots and the increase in the size of the plant, a gradual decrease in yield, up to the complete absence of fruits.

During their life, grapes go through a small cycle that repeats annually. It consists of a dormant phase and a vegetation phase.

Rest phase occurs in shrubs only in regions with severe winter cold snaps. During this period, leaf fall is observed. Young shoots ripen, acquiring a dark color. Unripe parts of the plant fall off. Several layers near the core, as well as the bark of the root system, are converted into cork tissue, protecting the living parts of the plant from frost. Growth stops. All life processes in plant tissues slow down or stop.

Second phase - vegetation... It lasts from early spring to late autumn. At this time, the grapes are actively growing, throwing out new shoots, blooming and bearing fruit. It is during this period that the plant requires increased attention and care.

Growing methods

Growing grapes for beginners

Grapes are grown throughout Russia, except for the Far North. There are varieties that not only bear fruit, but also perform a decorative function. Some of them can be grown at home.

Grape growing methods:

  1. Outdoors. This is the most common cultivation option.In open ground, it is worth planting only those plants that are capable of growing in a specific region.
  2. Greenhouse. In the greenhouse, grapes are grown in central and northern Russia. This method of cultivation allows cultivating varieties with delicious berries, such as raisins, in harsh climatic conditions.
  3. On the balcony. There are decorative grape varieties that have small sour berries, but beautiful leaves and shoots. They are unpretentious and are used not only in landscape design, but also to decorate the balcony.
  4. On the windowsill. There are varieties that can be grown at home in a flower pot. They also have a decorative function.

Grape variety selection

When choosing a variety for cultivation for different years of Russia (for example, for the Moscow region and Krasnodar region), it is important to pay attention to the following factors.

  • immunity;
  • maximum frost resistance;
  • yield;
  • growing conditions;
  • exactingness to the ground;
  • taste qualities;
  • size and color of berries;
  • the presence of drought resistance.


Planting and caring for grapes requires compliance with basic rules. Only in this case will it be possible to grow strong healthy plants.

For cultivation of grapes, the cuttings method is most often used. It allows you to get the first crop already 2 years after planting. Reproduction is less commonly used by layering.

You can plant grapes in spring (from mid-March to early June) and autumn. The first option is more preferable, especially for regions with a cool climate - it is more likely that the seedling will take root.

Growing grapes for beginners

Selection and preparation of planting material

An important condition for growing grapes is the selection of suitable planting material and its preparation. It will depend on these stages whether the seedling will take root and how often the plant will hurt in the future.

Usually, seedlings are bought in specialized stores and markets. To choose the best planting material, pay attention to the following factors:

  1. Roots. A good seedling should have more than 4 thick roots. A well-developed root system will allow the planting material to take root faster. The roots should be long, firm and thick. The root should be white and moist when cut. Dry, limp, thin and broken roots indicate poor product quality. The chances that such planting material will take root are small.
  2. Trunk. The main thing is that it has at least 5 live buds. To make sure that the kidneys have not died, they are pressed on with a finger. If the buds begin to flake off or have fallen off, they are not viable. There should be no damage or signs of disease on the vine. A quality barrel is resilient and warm to the touch. Its bark is brown with a layer of green underneath.
  3. Number of trunks... One seedling should have no more than 2 trunks. 2 vines will take root if the planting material has a developed root system.
  4. The size of the vines. The barrel diameter should not be less than 6 mm. The length should vary between 30-40 cm.

Grape seedlings are also called chubuki. They can be prepared independently, in the process of forming a vine.

Advice! It is recommended to buy shanks in the fall. They are stored until spring by burying them in trenches or sand boxes.

So that the plants do not get sick and quickly take root, they are prepared for planting. This is done as follows:

  1. The seedling is shortened on each side by 1.5 cm. The cuts are made at an angle. This procedure activates the growth of the seedling.
  2. To protect the grapes from disease, the planting material is disinfected. To do this, it is immersed for 20 minutes in a light pink solution of potassium permanganate at room temperature.
  3. For 2 days, the shanks are soaked in a solution of a growth stimulator ("Epin", "Circo"). This will increase the resistance of the seedlings to negative environmental factors and help them take root faster.

I prepare the seedlings just before planting.

Selection, site preparation and landing

It is important to find a suitable place in the garden for growing grapes. It should be protected from the wind and located in the most illuminated area. Groundwater should not be close to the surface. It is desirable that the beds are without a slope.

Experienced gardeners recommend placing grape beds in the southwest. The vineyards are located from north to south. However, this is not required. Any place that meets the specified requirements will do.

The plot is prepared at least 3 weeks before planting the seedlings. If the grapes are planted in spring, it is recommended to prepare the site in the fall. This is done this way:

  1. Dig holes. In sandy soil, its depth should be 50 cm, and in clay soil 20 cm.
  2. The soil from the hole is mixed with fertilizers. For 1 part of the soil, take 1 part of rotted manure, 25 g of superphosphate, 1 tbsp of ash.
  3. Drainage is poured at the bottom of the hole. It can be fine gravel, expanded clay or broken ceramics. A layer of branches or boards is laid on the drainage.
  4. On top of the layer of branches, a slide is made from the prepared soil mixture.
  5. The roots are dipped in a mixture of clay and mullein. To do this, 1 kg of mullein and 2 kg of clay are poured into a bucket. The rest of the volume is filled with water. All ingredients are mixed to form a mixture with a uniform consistency.
  6. Escapes cut off 1-2 cm and dipped in molten paraffin.
  7. The seedling is placed in the hole so that the vine is in the center of the hill. The roots must be laid out around the mound.
  8. The hole is covered with the remaining soil. The soil around the seedling is crushed.
  9. The grapes are watered. For one plant, use 5 liters of settled water at room temperature.
  10. The soil around the grapes is mulched. It is covered with compost, fallen leaves, rotted straw or peat.

Grape care

Asking the question of how to grow grapes correctly, first of all it is worth familiarizing yourself with the basic nuances of caring for it. The life expectancy and productivity of a plant depends on the correctness of agricultural technology.

Rules for planting and caring for grapes in the open field for beginners.

Care after winter

When the temperature outside reaches + 5 ° C, the plant is removed shelter... The bush is sprayed with "Epin". The grapes are examined for diseases, sprayed with a solution of copper sulfate (1 tbsp. L of the product is taken in a bucket of water).

Preparing for winter

To prevent contamination of grapes with infectious diseases, it process solution of copper sulfate. Collect all leaves and plant debris. The vine is bent to the ground and fixed with a load or bracket. From above, the plant is covered with spruce branches.

In winter

In winter, it is recommended to sprinkle grape plantings with snow.


The grapes do not need frequent watering. The first time the soil is watered after it has been harvested winter shelter... The second planting is watered 7 days before flowering, and the third - when the plant fades.

The last time the grapes are watered this season is when all the fruits have been harvested. For irrigation, use warm settled water. This procedure is performed in the morning or evening when the sun is inactive.


Growing grapes for beginners

The procedure is carried out in 2 stages. A dry garter is carried out immediately after the winter shelter is removed. The vine is tied to the first step of the trellis. A green garter is made as the shoots develop. The regrown parts of the plant are attached to the next steps of the shoots at an angle.


After each watering and precipitation, the soil around the grapes is loosened to destroy the earth crust. During the loosening process, it is convenient to remove the weeds that carry the infection.

Preventive treatments

When grapes grow, it is important to protect them from disease. For this, preventive treatment is carried out. The first time the plant is sprayed in the spring, the second time a week before flowering or on the buds, the third - after flowering, the fourth - when the fruits reach the size of peas.

For spraying, Bordeaux liquid, copper sulfate or systemic fungicides are used.

Top dressing

Before growing grapes, you should familiarize yourself with the fertilization scheme. In poor soil, the plant will not please the gardener with rich crops, it will hurt.

Until the first fruiting (2-3) years, the grapes are not fed. He has enough nutrients introduced during planting. Therefore, it is so important to lay a sufficient amount of rotted manure and mineral fertilizers before planting a seedling.

After the grapes begin to bear fruit, fertilizing becomes necessary. The plant is fertilized under the root according to the following scheme:

  1. First feeding applied immediately after harvesting the winter coating. Granular dry fertilizers are used. For one plant, 40 g of superphosphate, 45 g of nitrogen fertilizer and 30 g of a preparation containing potassium are taken. Substances are laid in a groove around the bush, after which the depression is covered.
  2. Second time fertilizers are applied a week before flowering. For preparation, 2 parts of water are mixed with 1 part of chicken manure. The product is allowed to brew for 2 weeks, then diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 5. 25 g of superphosphate and 10 g of potassium fertilizer are poured into a bucket of the resulting fertilizer. One bush uses 10 liters of top dressing.
  3. During the ripening of the berries, 3 dressings are made... 20 g of potash fertilizer and 50 g of superphosphate are applied under the bush.

In spring and autumn they use foliar dressing. Grapes are sprayed with a composition that includes trace elements, among which must be boron, potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen. Fertilizer is prepared independently or ready-made preparations are purchased.

Shaping and pruning

The formation of young plants is quite simple. It includes two stages. Sanitary pruning is done in the fall immediately after harvest.... Weak shoots, tops, fruiting links, dry branches, plant parts with signs of infection or pests are removed from the bush.

The second pruning is done after leaf fall. All excess shoots are cut off, leaving on the plant from 3 to 8 sloped sleeves.

Those who think that pruning grapes is a quick process are wrong. The older the plant, the longer it takes to form.

In adult grapes, at the first pruning, all shoots located below 0.5 m from the ground are cut out. Also, all stepchildren are removed from branches that are higher than 0.8 m from the ground surface. The tops of these branches are cut off, retreating 10 cm from the end.

During the second pruning, only perennial stems and sleeves with buds located perpendicular to the soil are left. From the latter, brushes with berries will grow next year.

Important! The first frosts temper the grapes. Pruning can be carried out down to –3 ° C.

Growing grapes for beginners

Features of cultivation in different regions

With the right choice of grape variety for a particular region, plant care will not differ depending on climatic conditions. It is not possible to grow culture in the open field in all cities of Russia.

Krasnodar region has ideal conditions for vineyards... The climate here is warm, and winter frosts rarely even reach –20 ° C. Therefore, in the southern part of Russia, it is possible to grow varieties with large fruits, a thin shell and a sweet taste.

In Nizhny Novgorod, the Moscow region and in other central regions, winters are severe. Most cultivated grape varieties cannot grow under these conditions. For such cities, grapes with increased frost resistance are suitable. In most cases, its fruits are small in size, dense rind and tart sour taste. They are often used in winemaking.

In Siberia and other cities with a cold climate, grapes do not grow in the open field. Here it is possible to grow crops only in greenhouses.


Growing grapes for beginners

The grapes are harvested in the second half of the summer. Black-fruited berries by this time acquire a characteristic blue color, and whites acquire a yellowish tint.Ripe berries have a juicy tender pulp, sweet taste and pronounced aroma.

The grapes are cut or broken off in whole bunches. They are kept in the refrigerator, in the vegetable drawer.


Grapes are a demanding crop that requires the constant attention of the gardener. Without timely watering, pruning, garter, dressing and preparation for the winter period, the plant will be sick and give meager yields.

The main rule of a novice winegrower is not to neglect the basic rules of care, to listen to the advice and recommendations of experienced gardeners.

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