Why is the Bovine heart cherry variety good and why it is worth trying to grow it
Sweet cherry grows in many garden areas. The fruits of this tree are loved for their sweetness and juiciness. For a rich harvest, it is important to choose the highest quality varieties, therefore, many gardeners give their preference to the Oxheart cherry, which is famous not only for its excellent taste, but also for its unpretentiousness.
The content of the article
- Description of the cherry variety Bull heart
- Characteristics and description of trees
- Characteristics and description of berries
- Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
- Growing technology
- Gardeners reviews
Description of the cherry variety Bull heart
Bull, or Volovye, heart is one of the most large-fruited domestic varieties. It got its name due to the unusual shape of the berries - round, with a slight compression, which makes them similar to the anatomical shape of the heart.
History of origin and distribution
This cherry was bred on the territory of Georgia during the Soviet Union.... It was intended for breeding in warm regions: Georgia, Azerbaijan, the republics of Central Asia and the southern strip of Russia. However, the variety has won such popularity and love of gardeners that many of them have achieved the cultivation of the Ox Heart in other regions. This became possible due to the organization of a high-quality winter shelter, which allows cherries to withstand frosts and other bad weather.
Now this variety is found in regions with more severe climates:
- Middle lane;
- Central Black Earth Region;
- North Caucasian;
The creators of the variety are considered to be ordinary gardeners, therefore it is not registered either in Georgia or in Russia.
Characteristics and description of trees
The bovine heart is a medium-sized plant with a pyramidal crown and sparse foliage. Leaves are large, dark green in color, pointed at the top and jagged at the edges. The height of an adult tree varies from 3 to 5 m, the final size depends on the quality of the soil. The seedlings develop quickly.
Due to the low growth of the crop, it is convenient to harvest. The density of the crown allows for high-quality ventilation of the tree, avoiding the reproduction of pests and avoiding excessive thickening of the foliage.
Cherry blossoms in the second half of May. In a temperate climate, the crop is harvested in July. In the southern strip - at the end of June. They ripen gradually, which allows you to get the harvest in several stages. 30-40 kg are collected from one tree.
Resistant to temperatures
In the southern regions, berry trees can easily tolerate lower temperatures. In the middle lane, where frosts down to -25 ° C are possible in winter, branches and shoots freeze out. In a temperate climate, it is important to carry out correct and timely preparation for wintering and provide the plant with good protection from the cold.
In the spring, you should beware of recurrent frosts, which can cause the death of flowers.
Moisture and drought resistance
A bull heart equally dislikes drought and excess moisture. Excessive, lingering rainfall can lead to berry spoilage. During a drought, the tree is regularly watered, otherwise the cherries will not reach their maximum size. The juiciness of the crop also depends on watering.
Disease and pest resistance
Bovine heart has natural immunity to most diseases typical for cherry crops.Of the pests, only a few are dangerous - cherry fly and cherry moth.
Characteristics and description of berries
The average weight of one Bull Heart berry is 7-8 g. It is characterized by a dense skin of a bright red, wine hue. The pulp is slightly lighter than the shell and has a pronounced sweet taste with a slight sourness. On a 5-point scale, the fruits of this variety have the maximum score. The peduncle is easily detached without damaging the berry.
Attention! Despite the fact that the skin of the Bull's Heart is dense, it breaks easily, which reduces the transportability of the berries.
Harvested carefully - crumpled and damaged berries cannot be stored.
Areas of use
Experts call Bovine Heart a versatile dessert variety. Berries are eaten fresh, dried, frozen and preserved.
The fruits are used:
- in juices and nectars;
- in homemade wines and liqueurs;
- in the production of jams and preserves;
- in confectionery;
- in milkshakes.
The fruits contain a huge amount of vitamins and minerals. Their calorie content is low - only 52 kcal per 100 g.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
Before planting this plant on your site, you need to understand the pros and cons of the variety.
The pluses include:
- High yield rate.
- Stable annual fruiting.
- The appearance and taste of berries.
- Natural immunity to certain pests and types of fungal diseases.
- Trees are frost-resistant with proper care.
- Relative resistance to drought.
Of the bright minuses - only the short storage time of ripe berries and the difficulty in transportation.
It is best to buy seedlings from specialized stores and nurseries. Plant for landing should be with an even trunk of a uniform color, without damage to the bark. The presence of buds and green foliage is required.
The roots of the seedling should be moist, well developed and free from damage, knots and compaction.
The bovine heart should not be planted in regions where the thermometer drops below -25 ° C in winter.... Areas located in lowlands are not suitable, since stagnant water significantly affects the yield of trees. They will grow and bear fruit best in fertile and loose soil with moderate acidity.
The soil is prepared 1-2 months before planting. The selected area is dug up, loosened and cleaned of weeds and roots. The soil is mixed with humus and fertilizers. If the soil is acidic, it is lime.
The seedling pit must be prepared 2-3 weeks before planting. The top soil (about 20 cm) is the most fertile, so it is mixed with humus and laid on the bottom over the drainage. The soil is watered and a support peg is driven in.
Terms and rules of landing
Planting is carried out in early spring, after the end of frost. This time is enough for the seedling to take root and properly prepare for wintering.
Some gardeners plant the Oxheart in the fall, but then the tree may not survive the winter and die.
The variety is photophilous, so the most successful place for it is a sunny area on the south side, closed from drafts and north wind. Groundwater should be no higher than 3 m, otherwise the roots will rot.
The distance between the plants is about 1.5-2 m, and between the rows - 3-5 m. It is important to choose the right neighborhood, which will increase yields and protect trees from pests and diseases. Other cultivars and cherries are ideal neighbors.
Important! Sweet cherries will not make friends with apple, pear, gooseberry, raspberry, tomato and pepper.
The seedling is regularly watered - about 2 times a month, at least 3 liters at a time. Fertilize young trees with manure or ammonium nitrate solution. After each watering, the soil is loosened to make it easier for the plant to get oxygen. The last time the tree is watered is in the fall, before the leaves fall.
The crown is formed during the first 3 years. Every spring cherries are cleaned - dried, damaged branches are cut off. Root shoots are removed, and if the crown is too thick, it is thinned out to provide air flow.
Possible problems, diseases, pests
In late spring or early summer, small brown spots can be seen on the leaves of trees.... After a while, the affected foliage dries up and crumbles. In rare cases, spots are found on fruits. This is how the fungal disease coccomycosis manifests itself.
The affected plant parts are removed and burned. During the ripening of the buds, the trees are treated with fungicides, after harvesting they are sprayed with Bordeaux liquid.
Gray rot (moniliosis), which manifests itself in the form of burn spots and gray plaque on the fruits and leaves of the tree, is also dangerous. For the purpose of prophylaxis and for the treatment of a sick plant, preparations with a high copper content are used.
During the flowering period, cherries can get sick with verticillosis. The fungus forms wounds on the bark and leads to wilting of flowers, which jeopardizes the harvest. A solution of copper sulfate can solve this problem.
Among the pests, the most dangerous are:
- Cherry fly. The insect lays eggs in green berries. Immediately after hatching, the larvae begin to devour the flesh from the inside.
- Cherry moth. It affects the buds, leaves and young shoots of sweet cherries.
The solution to pest problems comes down to the use of special insecticides. They should not be applied several weeks before harvest.
With the onset of autumn, trees are prepared for winter rest:
- Water abundantly - up to 100 liters of water for each tree during the entire autumn season.
- The soil around the tree is cleaned of branches and withered grass, loosened and laid with humus.
- The lower part of the trunk is wrapped with mesh or burlap.
- If severe frosts are expected, the roots are covered with spruce branches.
- Saplings are hidden for the winter under special materials.
Cherries are propagated by cuttings. The stalk is taken from the lower branches of the mother tree at the end of summer, after harvest. This method helps to get seedlings that can bear fruit before 4 years. The grown tree will be similar to the mother tree; the main thing is to provide proper care.
Features of cultivation depending on the region
In the southern strip of Russia, the Bull's Heart sweet cherry does not require special conditions other than sufficient watering during a drought.
In colder regions, special attention is paid to organizing wintering and insulating trees during flowering, if there is a threat of severe frosts.
Bovine heart belongs to partially self-fertile varieties. Some varieties of this crop and cherry trees are suitable as pollinators. The main condition is the coincidence of flowering dates.
The most suitable varieties of cherries:
- English early.
Summer residents speak positively about the Bull's heart cherry.
Irina Fedorovna, Rostov: “I have been growing this variety for 6 years now. Easy to care for, gives a good harvest, the berries are very tasty, sweet. But they cannot be stored for a long time. On the third day, they start to deteriorate. "
Valentina Ivanovna, Kursk: “We breed the bull's heart for sale. They sell out quickly, very tasty berries, so there is practically no waste. The variety is unpretentious in care, for all the time the trees have never been sick. "
Tatyana Ivanovna, Krasnodar: "We planted the crop 8 years ago, and 5 years later we harvested the first crop. The berries are large and very tasty, everything is eaten within a few days. "
As you can see from the reviews, the Bull Heart is not in vain popular with gardeners.Everyone notes the exceptional taste of the fruits and their size, while the culture is not capricious, it is easy to look after it. And frost resistance makes the variety even more attractive.