Instructions for beginners: how to prune a walnut in the fall according to different schemes
Walnut kernels are tasty and healthy, used for making desserts and snacks. To get a rich harvest, gardeners need to know how to care for the tree and what agronomic procedures it needs. One of the must-haves is to remove excess shoots. In the article, we will consider in detail what kind of walnut pruning is in the fall and what is its use.
The content of the article
- Why prune walnuts in the fall
- Autumn pruning dates
- Formative pruning schemes
- Preparing nuts for pruning
- How to prune walnuts in the fall
- Features of pruning a young and old tree
- Post-procedure care
- Experienced gardening tips
Why prune walnuts in the fall
In late summer or early spring, the growth of shoots slows down, the plant prepares for cold weather. Autumn pruning heals the tree. Thanks to the procedure, all unnecessary parts of the plant are removed - dry and weak shoots, infected, thin and diseased branches. The walnut improves immunity, it is less susceptible to diseases and attacks of insect pests. Pruning prepares the tree for winter, so it can withstand frost and bear fruit abundantly the next year.
Pruning improves the appearance of the plant - gardeners will cut out all chaotic and intertwined shoots. After the procedure, the tree looks well-groomed and neat.
Is it obligatory
Autumn pruning is required if summer residents want to improve the health of the tree, extend its life and get a rich and tasty harvest every year. For mature trees, the procedure is necessary to increase the number of fruit branches.
If you do not cut the plant, then the shoots thicken, yield decreases, diseases and pests appear more often. Weak branches break in the wind. It is difficult to rehabilitate such a tree; it takes several years.
Autumn pruning dates
The timing of the procedure depends on when the walnut tree sheds foliage.... This usually happens in September-October. When choosing a date, attention is paid to the climatic conditions of the growing region and the temperature. Summer residents recommend cutting the plant on a cloudy and windless morning at a temperature of at least + 10 ° C. Do not carry out the procedure in rainy weather.
Attention! The walnut is pruned 2-3 weeks after fruiting. If the inflorescences appeared in May, then the harvest is harvested in early September. If in June, then the nuts are removed before the beginning of October. It is not necessary to wait for full ripening - the fruits are harvested green and put into a box for 2 weeks.
There are several types of walnut trimming - rejuvenating, sanitary, shaping, regulating. Each of them has its own purpose and is conducted in accordance with strict rules. The wrong technique will do the plant more harm than good.
Rejuvenating pruning is relevant for trees over 10 years old, when the yield of mature plants gradually decreases, the number of nuts becomes less and less every year. In the pruning process, gardeners remove the side branches, long new shoots and shoots growing into the tree. Thanks to the procedure, the lifespan of the plant increases, a place appears for the development of new and fruiting branches. The crown of the tree will take on the correct shape and the nuts will become large.
The procedure is also relevant for those trees that consistently bear poor fruit. Such plants are pruned every 7 years. The older the tree, the more intensive the pruning.Also, a rejuvenating procedure will save a tree that has suffered from frost.
Sanitary pruning is done if the tree has a lot of dry and weak shoots. They are deformed, covered with spots and bloom, change color. Such branches create a favorable environment for the development of diseases and the reproduction of pests, therefore, a sanitary procedure is the prevention of their appearance. Also, the event restores the strength of the plant if it has already been ill. Most often, walnuts are affected by marsoniasis, bacteriosis, and brown spot.
It is interesting:
Formative pruning is aimed at stimulating the growth and development of healthy shoots, increasing yields. Thanks to the procedure, the immunity of the walnut is strengthened, the crown becomes powerful and resistant to external factors. Also, formative pruning is used when young plants need help with crown formation. It is important that the tree grows evenly in length and width and that new shoots are evenly distributed over the skeletal branches. The procedure is carried out in October, when the sap flow ends.
Attention! During formative pruning, growers shorten the middle trunk and all skeletal branches. This is necessary in order to get a new skeletal branch if any of the existing ones has suffered.
Regulatory pruning is carried out from 7-8 years after planting. By this time, a large number of small shoots and lateral processes have been formed in the crown, which interfere with normal fruiting. The leaves do not receive the required amount of sunlight, they obscure each other and nearby shoots growing. Summer residents recommend cutting out semi-skeletal branches of the lower tier and thinning the crown. Shoots with mechanical damage and wounds are also removed.
Formative pruning schemes
The formation of the crown is carried out according to the leader, tiered, cup-shaped scheme.
Leadership technique is a way to distribute the scaffold branches around the tree trunk in a spiral. The lateral branches are left on the lower 3 tiers until fruiting, after which they are thinned out until they are completely removed. Thanks to the leader pattern, the crown is well lit from all directions, which contributes to increased yields.
When pruning in tiers, 3 frame branches are left on each tier, the distance between which is at least 15 cm. An adult tree should have about 5-6 tiers. The lower one is removed during the procedure - no branches should grow up to 1.5 m above the ground. The crown is thinned out with longline shaping pruning.
They resort to the cup-shaped scheme to make it more convenient to harvest. The bowl-shaped crown allows air to pass through, creating favorable conditions for the development of fruits. Pruning is carried out for 3 years, annually removing the central branches until the tree has 4 skeletal branches at a distance of 30 cm from each other. The remaining shoots are crossed with the branches of the upper tiers.
Preparing nuts for pruning
Work begins only with trees above 1.5 m. After fruiting, the walnut is watered for the last time and the soil is loosened so that the moisture is better absorbed. Fertilizer is not applied in the fall; it is better to do this in spring and summer.
Summer residents pay attention to the fact that there are no pests and diseases on the tree. If there are signs of damage, then first the plant is treated and only then the procedure is started. Also, gardeners monitor the cleanliness of the garden area - there should be no debris, weeds and plant residues on it. Fallen leaves are collected and burned.
How to prune walnuts in the fall
In order to cut walnuts in the fall competently and without harm to the plant, gardeners prepare tools in advance and study the instructions.
Required materials and tools
To remove green shoots and thin young shoots, use garden shears or a pruner with a sharp edge. A blunt tool will harm plants - after it, torn cuts remain on the walnut tree, they heal for a long time and serve as a hotbed for the development of diseases and pests. The handle of the garden tools should fit snugly in the hand, not slip. The rubberized handles are very comfortable. Before use, the inventory is disinfected in a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
Use a hand or gasoline saw to cut thick and old branches. If the branches are high, a ladder and a lopper with long aluminum handles. Experienced gardeners recommend paying attention to personal safety rules.
Attention! For any type of pruning, a garden pitch is required. It is a thick, soft substance based on wood resin. Garden pitch protects slices from bacteria and microbes, promotes rapid wound healing. When using the var, rubber gloves and a respirator are used.
Step-by-step instructions for pruning
The procedure begins by examining the tree - summer residents determine which branches and on which tier need to be removed. Next, they start trimming:
- shorten biennial shoots longer than 60 cm and dry branches;
- cut branches broken and damaged during the harvest;
- remove 1-2 skeletal branches growing in the center of the crown;
- cut thin and long shoots with shoots;
- cut off young growth;
- fattening and shoots affected by insects are cut out;
- lubricate the places of cuts with garden pitch.
Mistakes to Avoid
A common mistake made by novice gardeners is cutting branches to zero. It is recommended to leave fruit short branches about 20-40 cm, so that they turn into fruiting shoots next year. Also, summer residents forget to disinfect garden tools - because of which the walnut tree becomes infected with diseases or damaged by insect pests.
Walnut trees also suffer due to the fact that gardeners do not observe layering. In each tier, 3-4 skeletal branches must be left. Otherwise, formative or regulating pruning will not be beneficial.
It is interesting:
Features of pruning a young and old tree
When pruning young trees (up to 5 years old), pay attention to young green growth. There is a lot of it on the lower tier, which is why the branches are poorly lit. They remove the overgrowth with garden shears - it is thin and does not require special tools. It is believed that when pruning it, the walnut tree does not need to be lubricated with garden pitch - small wounds will heal on their own.
Attention! In the early years, special attention is paid to formative pruning. Despite the fact that the walnut is not yet bearing fruit, it is at this time that it is important to make sure that the branches grow in the right direction. Thickening of young plants is not allowed.
Starting from 7-10 years, a rejuvenating procedure is performed annually. This is just as important as timely watering or feeding. If the crown is not visible at the tree, then all non-fruiting and deformed shoots are cut out. You should not be afraid of such drastic measures - this will rejuvenate the tree and extend its life. Gardeners make sure that the branches do not grow into the crown.
When the wounds heal, the walnut is sprayed with a solution of Bordeaux liquid or urea. This is done to protect the tree from diseases and pests. The plant is treated in the morning or in the evening, using a spray bottle with a solution for this.
Adult plants hibernate without shelter, and young trees are wrapped in burlap for the winter. The base of the trunk is mulched with hay or wood chips - this protects the root system from freezing. This rule is especially true for regions with a cold and changeable climate.
Experienced gardening tips
Experienced gardeners recommend formative pruning in several stages.... In the second year after planting, a strong vertical shoot is chosen, and the remaining branches are pinched. On the third, the lateral processes are cut and the crown is formed, and on the fourth, 5-6 skeletal branches are left in the crown.
Summer residents advise, during the procedure, to monitor the state of the tree. For example, if the nut is sick, it is better to postpone the procedure. There is no point in trying to heal a plant until it gets rid of bacteria and germs.
If, after trimming, the wounds do not heal for a long time, then they are re-treated with garden var. If not, then use clay putty: 2 parts of clay are mixed with 1 part of mullein and 2 parts of fine hay. The mixture is diluted with water to a thick consistency.
Young and perennial walnut trees need pruning. During the procedure, gardeners remove old, dry, infertile and damaged shoots. Garden shears are used to cut thin branches, a saw for thick ones. The instrument must be sharp, otherwise lacerations will heal for a long time. After the shoots are smeared with garden varnish, treated with a solution of copper sulfate and prepared for wintering. Without pruning, the tree grows weak, thickened and does not bear fruit well.