How to properly plant cherries in the fall: instructions for a novice gardener
In many summer cottages, you can find cherries. But not all novice gardeners know at what time of the year it is better to plant this fruit tree.
We will tell you when and how to plant cherries correctly and what to look for in order for them to take root and bring a good harvest in the future.
The content of the article
- Choosing a cherry variety for autumn planting
- Selection and preparation of seedlings
- Landing dates
- How to properly plant an autumn cherry tree
- Further care of the seedling
- Landing nuances depending on the region
Choosing a cherry variety for autumn planting
If you want to plant cherry seedlings in the fall, give preference to frost-resistant varieties, so that they successfully survive the winter and take root by the spring:
- Altai early;
- Chocolate girl.
These varieties tolerate frosty winters and cold summers well.
Also, when choosing, pay attention to the feature of pollination. Many cherry varieties are self-fertile; they need a pollinator to pair. In terms of ripening, they should be close to each other. For full fruiting, choose 3-4 seedlings of different varieties.
Selection and preparation of seedlings
For autumn planting, seedlings are chosen that have already entered a dormant period. This means that they should be without leaves and young shoots. Then the plants will put all their strength into rooting.
The root system should be well developed and reach 25 cm.
One- or two-year-old trees are optimal for planting in autumn. The height of the seedlings should be no more than 100 cm, and the bark should be brown.
Attention! If the height of the seedling exceeds 100 cm or the bark has a greenish tint, it means that the plant has been "overfed" with nitrogen, and this stimulates active vegetation and reduces winter hardiness.
An adult tree does not tolerate transplanting well. Therefore, before planting cherries, choose a suitable place. This should be a well-lit area on a hill, protected from wind and drafts. It is important that there are no trees nearby that will shade the cherry.
Cherries are sensitive to waterlogging, so they avoid swampy areas, as well as places with a close occurrence of groundwater.
Reference. With proper care, cherries grow in one place for 15-20 years and bears fruit successfully.
Cherry prefers to grow on sandy loam and loamy soils. The acidity of the soil should be within normal limits. If the soil is strongly acidic, lime it beforehand (400 g of lime per 1 m²). This procedure is not carried out in the year the seedlings are planted.
In autumn, cherries are planted from mid-September to late October. It is important to have time to plant seedlings before the first frost, 20-30 days before the onset of frost, so that the roots have time to strengthen. They are guided by the average temperature in the region over the past years.
The optimum temperature for disembarkation is + 10 ... + 15 ° С during the day and not lower than 0 ° С at night.
Attention! If the air temperature is too high, the plant will not be dormant. The forces will be spent on the development of shoots, not roots, and the root system will not have time to prepare for wintering.
When is it better to plant - in spring or autumn
Planting cherries in the fall has many advantages over spring:
- In the fall, the seedlings quickly adapt to replanting. They are already at rest, when all their strength is spent not on shoots and foliage, but on rooting before wintering.
- Good survival rate. In the fall, a favorable temperature regime is established for seedlings without sudden temperature changes.
- Large selection of planting material.In the fall, many gardeners sell cherry seedlings cheaper, there are more varieties of varieties, so you can choose the right one. In addition, in the fall, seedlings are sold with an open root system, which makes it possible to carefully examine the root. It must be free from defects and fully developed.
- Autumn planting saves time. In addition to properly planting and covering the tree for winter, the gardener does not need to do other work. Seasonal rains will provide the seedlings with moisture.
The autumn planting method also has disadvantages:
- Premature frost can destroy the roots of the plant. The seedlings will not take root and will die.
- Rodents can spoil the seedlings. Young shoots are wrapped in protective material or painted with a deterrent whitewash.
How to properly plant an autumn cherry tree
When planting in autumn, it is important to remember that the root system must get stronger before the onset of frost. Therefore, they are preparing for the procedure.
Required materials and tools
A mixture is prepared in advance for filling the planting pit. To make it you will need:
- the top layer of soil left after digging a hole;
- 1 bucket of humus;
- 1 bucket of peat;
- 50 g superphosphate.
Nitrogen fertilizers are not used during planting, as they reduce the survival rate of seedlings.
From the inventory you will need:
- peg for support;
- roofing material;
- bucket with water;
In order for the cherry tree to grow and develop successfully, planting rules are observed:
- Before planting, leave the seedling in water for a day so that the roots are saturated with moisture.
- Carefully examine the seedling, remove the damaged roots with pruning shears.
- The planting hole is pre-watered with water and allowed to soak.
- The seedling is placed in the center of the pit, sprinkled with earth and tamped.
- A support is installed on the north side and a seedling is tied to it using an elastic twine in a figure-eight loop. An interlayer of roofing material is made between the tree and the rope so that the bark is not injured by the wind.
- Water the seedling with a bucket of water. At the base, the soil is mulched so that the moisture does not evaporate too quickly. Sawdust or pine needles are used as mulch.
Further care of the seedling
The most important thing for young cherries is timely watering and protection from pests. In the absence of regular precipitation, water the tree with at least 5 liters of water. A hole is made around the trunk for irrigation, and after the onset of cold weather they fill it up so that in the spring melt water does not stagnate there.
Before freezing, the seedling is spud to a height of 30 cm and covered with spruce branches on top so that the roots do not freeze in winter.
If the winter is not very snowy, they shovel the snow to the center of the trunk so that the surface of the hole is always under a thick layer of snow.
In the spring, the protective layer is removed and the ground is leveled at the base. The branches are cut by a third to regulate the ratio of the aboveground and underground parts.
Also at this time of the year, preventive treatments for bacterial and fungal infections are carried out. From pests, the plant is treated with the preparations "Akarin", "Iskra Bio", "Fitoverm". It is important to get rid of the larvae in the bark and soil before the tree begins to bear fruit, otherwise the crop cannot be saved.
After flowering, during the pouring of fruits and at the beginning of the autumn period, the cherry is watered abundantly. For 1 m², 40-60 liters of water are consumed. Once every three years, humus or compost is introduced at the rate of 0.5 buckets per 1 m².
With poor development, the seedling is fertilized with organic dressing from the following components: 1 bucket of manure, 5 buckets of water, 1 kg of ash. The consumption rate for 1 seedling is 0.5 buckets of fertilizer.
Landing nuances depending on the region
Depending on the climatic conditions in different regions of the country, cherries are planted at different times.
In the Urals and Siberia, frosts come earlier, so planting is carried out in early September, so that it has time to adapt.
For the middle lane, the optimal planting time is late September - early October.This will allow the plant to go into dormancy and prepare for winter.
On the territory of the Volga region, cherries are planted in mid-October, when optimal conditions for rooting are established.
In the southern regions, planting is carried out from early October to mid-November.
In regions with a cold climate, you will have to postpone the planting of cherries until spring.
It is interesting:
Planting cherries in autumn is easy, even a novice gardener can handle it. The main thing is to take a responsible approach to the choice of seedlings and places, wait for the optimal temperature regime and follow the rules of planting and further care.