What is cherry pruning in summer for and how to do it correctly
Cherry pruning is traditionally done once a year, in spring or fall. However, summer formation is also favorable for the tree. In this article, you will learn about the goals of pruning cherries in the summer and how to do it right.
The content of the article
- Is it possible to prune cherries in the summer, after harvest
- Types of trimming
- How to prune a tree correctly
- Features of pruning depending on the type of tree
- Further care of the plant
- Experienced gardening tips
Can cherries be cut in summer after harvest
Trees are formed once a year, in spring or autumn. However, if you are late with the timing of pruning cherries in March or carry it out too early in the fall, there is a high probability of gum leakage, and the plant may die.
With proper summer pruning, wounds heal quickly. Before the end of the growing season, the cherry has time to recover, grow new branches and lay the buds of future shoots. This increases its resistance to frost in winter.
Purpose of pruning
Shortening shoots during fruiting promotes the growth of new bouquet branches, which are responsible for the formation of berries the next year.
After harvesting, pruning cherries is performed in order to form the crown of the tree: to keep the growth of branches, to regulate the degree of thickening. Also, dry and diseased processes are removed regularly.
Is it obligatory
Cherries respond well to timely pruning in any season. But the summer shortening of the shoots, in contrast to the spring one, promotes the laying of fruit buds closer to the base and prevents the crown from being exposed in the center.
The yield also increases due to an increase in the number of new young shoots, which will begin to actively bear fruit next year.
Depending on the purpose and type of pruning, there are 2 periods for the formation of a cherry bush:
- June - early July (time of formation and harvest). New branches reach a length of 45-50 cm, and they manage to form 3-4 buds that can give shoots. Shorten the branches that have grown in the current year - they will have time to branch out, get stronger, give a leaf mass, and also form shoots for the future harvest before August.
- Mid July - August (after fruiting). Perform any formative, regulating or restorative pruning. Late summer pinching restrains the growth of the bush, since in August the active growth of shoots stops. On the contrary, spring removal of branches stimulates vegetative growth.
Summer pruning for the formation of bouquet branches is carried out during the fruiting period in the phase of active growth of the bush. If you carry out the procedure earlier, the branch will bloom and will not give growth. With late summer pruning on new shoots, fruit buds will not have time to form.
Perform the procedure on a warm, windless day. Pruning should not be performed in hot or rainy weather.
According to the lunar calendar, it is recommended to shorten the branches at the time of the waning moon, when the plant juices rush to the roots.
With the waning moon in Aquarius and Pisces, as well as growing in Cancer, the procedure is undesirable. You cannot hold an event on a new moon or full moon.
Types of trimming
Any type of summer pruning stimulates tree renewal, promotes better ventilation and lighting of the crown, reduces susceptibility to fungal and bacterial diseases.
Regulatory pruning in June is most important for cherries in summer.It aims to increase fruiting next year by stimulating the growth of new bouquet branches responsible for the formation of berries.
If the tree is too tall, has a disordered plexus of branches, formative pruning is carried out. Its main task is to give the crown an optimal shape. For cherries, this is most often a bowl - it promotes good ventilation and illumination, facilitates harvesting.
Important! Formative pruning is recommended either in early spring, before the cherry awakens, or in August, when the circulation of juices in the trunk decreases. During the period of active growth, there is a high risk of gum leakage.
To eliminate broken or cracked branches during harvesting, they carry out restorative pruning. Shoots damaged by diseases or pests are cut and burned.
For older trees, rejuvenating pruning is important. An indirect sign of the need for the procedure is weak growth and low yield. The purpose of rejuvenation is to stimulate the growth of new skeletal branches.
How to prune a tree correctly
The basis for any type and scheme of pruning is the formation of skeletal branches, removal or shortening of growth.
Required materials and tools
Clean, sharpened tools are used for trimming:
- secateurs for cutting thin shoots;
- lopper for removing branches up to 3-4 cm in diameter at the depth of the crown;
- a sharp knife for stripping cuts;
- garden saw for removing thick branches.
You also need a disinfectant solution for disinfecting the instrument and processing the sections.
Depending on the nature of growth and characteristics of fruiting, cherries are divided into bushy and tree-like. Their pruning schemes are different. There is also a separate method of growth management felted cherry.
The tree type is formed gradually... Remove all branches at a height of 70 cm above soil level. In the southern regions, it is rational to give the crown the shape of a bowl. As the tree grows, 8-10 skeletal branches are formed. In the fifth year, its height is limited to 2.5-3 m, having cut off the top 5 cm higher than the skeletal branch nearest to it.
With formative pruning, large branches are shortened every year to 60 cm, and last year's growth - up to 40 cm.With the June regulatory procedure aimed at increasing fruiting, the shoots of the current year are pinched up to 30-40 cm.The bouquet branches will yield a harvest for 5 years.
Shrub cherry is formed in such a way that in the fourth year of life it has 12-15 skeletal branches and reaches 2-2.5 m in height. The stem is cut at 5 cm from the skeletal branch.
Also, the trunk is freed from growths at the level of 35-40 cm from the ground. Bushy varieties form fruits on annual branches, their growth buds are located at the ends of the growth.
Attention! Do not shorten the shoot on a bush cherry without additional branches, it may dry out.
Felt Cherry does not have a barrel. Every year the strongest shoots are left on it, growing from the root head. A shrub is considered formed in the presence of 10-12 skeletal branches and a height of 2-2.5 m. Two-year growth is pinched by 1/4, and one-year growth by 1/3 of the length.
Before pruning, carefully examine the plant and mark the branches to be removed: dry or prone to drying out, broken, affected by pests or with signs of disease.
- Cut off the intended branches first. This will help in the future not to be mistaken with the choice of shoots to be formed.
- Further, at the base, the branches growing inside the crown and tops are removed.
- Indicates the main shoots that will help give the tree its intended shape. The most viable branches are selected, extending from the trunk or skeletal branch at an angle of at least 40 °. They should be located at a distance of at least 10-15 cm from each other, without intersecting with each other.
- These shoots are cut so that their length does not exceed 30 cm.
- Remove intertwining or contiguous branches, giving preference to the strongest.
- With rejuvenating pruning, spinning tops that are suitable for the formation of new skeletal or semi-skeletal branches are left for further development.
- The growth at the ends of the cherry is shortened to 30-40 cm, the branches hanging down are removed.
When pruning, the rule of subordination is used. The principle is that the lateral branches are shortened so that the conductor (the main trunk ending in the extension branch) is 15-20 cm higher than them.
Important! When the cherry is healed or the crown is formed, sections on the shoots are carried out at a distance of 1 cm above the bud growing outward.
To remove a whole branch, the cuts are made on a ring. From below, a branch is filed to the thickness of the bark, and then cut off from above closer to the trunk.
Features of pruning depending on the type of tree
It is important to form the crown on time and correctly, as well as to carry out a regulatory or anti-aging pruning. It depends on several factors.
From the age of the cherry
A young tree has a stem and skeletal branches... In the second or third year, 2 shoots of the second order are left on the lower shoots, from which semi-skeletal branches are then formed.
By the age of four, the cherry is usually already formed. In the future, they carry out summer adjusting or restorative pruning.
An adult tree annually requires elimination of crown thickening and pruning aimed at improvement. In tree cherries, they stimulate the formation of bouquet branches by summer pinching.
Depending on the varieties cherry lives from 12 to 15 years. Therefore, to maintain good yields, the tree is rejuvenated, starting from the age of 8.
Important! Anti-aging pruning is done within 2-3 years. This will preserve the vitality of the tree, prevent the development of gum disease and diseases.
From the growing region
When grown in different regions, the timing of summer pruning is shifted:
- The southern regions have the most favorable climate for growing crops. Regulatory pruning dates fall on average in the first ten days of June. July - August are suitable for crown shaping and anti-aging treatments.
- In central Russia, late June - early July are favorable.
- In northwest Russia, Siberia, and the Far East, summer pruning is not recommended, as cherries will not have time to recover. This event is left for spring or fall.
Further care of the plant
After trimming, large sections are cleaned with a sharp and disinfected knife. Then they are treated with copper-containing preparations in order to prevent the appearance of infection and the expiration of the gum. The garden paste-putty "RanNet" stimulates wound healing on the sections, which, in addition to copper sulphate, contains biological healing substances and humates.
Also, traditional means such as garden varnish and oil paint on drying oil are used to seal the sections. They are applied immediately after pruning - this way the risk of infection is minimized.
Experienced gardening tips
The advice of experienced gardeners will help beginners avoid mistakes when forming trees:
- On a tree cherry, prune the branches growing up to 30-40 cm. This stimulates the formation of new shoots, and also greatly facilitates the harvesting procedure.
- Prune bush cherries in summer when the branch is more than 50 cm long and branches appear on it for the development of new shoots. This will give you an excellent harvest.
- If the tree is growing very quickly, limit yourself to thinning the shoots. Too many branches cut at a time will lead to suppression of immunity and the development of diseases.
- If the growth of shoots has slowed down, you need rejuvenating pruning of branches that have not released fresh shoots for more than a year.
- Summer regulating pruning cannot do any harm, as most of this year's green shoots are pruned.
It is interesting:
Cherry pruning in summer is aimed at forming the crown, eliminating the risk of diseases, as well as increasing crop yields.
During the fruiting period in June, a regulating pruning is carried out, and at a later date (in July and August), a formative pruning. Before the end of the growing season, the tree manages to recover and lay buds for the formation of new branches next year.