How to grow a tangerine tree at home: care rules
How nice to eat mandaringrown with his own hands! Both taste and aroma are incomparable. And the tree itself is incredibly beautiful, delighting all year round with oily dense foliage and sunny fruits. Growing a tangerine at home is not easy, but with some effort and patience, even a beginner can handle it. A correctly selected variety and adherence to the rules of care will give the result - such a plant will delight its owner for at least 20 years. We will tell you in detail how to plant a tangerine and take care of it at home.
The content of the article
- Choosing a variety of decorative mandarin
- Planting and breeding indoor mandarin
- Mandarin grafting
- Features of caring for a tangerine tree at home
- Transplant and pruning
Choosing a variety of decorative mandarin
In order not to be disappointed and get fruits already for 4-5 years, you should correctly approach the choice of a future plant. Especially for home breeding, breeders bred dwarf varieties of tangerines. They are less demanding to care for, grow quickly, bloom and bear fruit abundantly.
It is best to choose from the most unpretentious varieties:
- Pioneer: large fruits weighing about 90 g, the crown is low, branched;
- Sochi: the weight of each tangerine exceeds 80 g, thin-cut;
- Forged-Wase (Kawano-Wase): height - up to 1 m, bears fruit in the second year after planting, harvest from one tree - 100-120 tangerines with a diameter of 5-7 cm each;
- Nova: fragrant flowers, sweet fruits, but poorly peeled;
- Unshiu: reaches a height of 1.5 m, bears fruit in the third year, seedless.
The choice of a variety depends on what conditions will be created for the full development of the plant.
Attention! You should not buy tall specimens for a small room. The tangerine will need space and a large pot. It is better to grow very undersized varieties on the windowsill, for example, Pioneer.
Planting and breeding indoor mandarin
To create ideal conditions for a plant is half of success. Mandarin loves the sun, but cannot stand too high a temperature. It is picky about moisture, but dies when over-watered. It grows all year round, but needs hibernation for fruiting.
Where to plant
The best place for a homemade tangerine is a windowsill on the south or west side of the house. With a short daylight hours, the plant needs additional lighting. Draft is destructive for him, so the place is chosen taking into account the possibility of careful ventilation. Often it is impossible to rearrange the tangerine from place to place - there is a high probability of stress. Only once every two weeks the pot with the plant is turned 10 ° so that the entire crown receives the same amount of ultraviolet radiation.
Important! In the summer, the mandarin needs "walks" in the fresh air. If it is possible to keep it outdoors during the whole warm season, it is good. The main thing is to protect from the wind.
Requirements for soil and pot
Mandarin does not like acidic soils, so there should be no peat in the ground. It is best to purchase a special citrus growing medium from a flower shop - ideal for growing the thermophilic southern plant at home. The acidity of the soil (pH) should not exceed 6.5-7 (usually it is indicated on the label on the package with the soil).
It is impossible to plant a tangerine in a large pot right away - there is a great danger of waterlogging or acidification of the soil.To begin with, a container with a depth of 8-10 cm and a diameter of 7-8 cm is enough.Only when the root system fills the volume of the pot, they transfer to a larger one, increasing the diameter annually by 4-6 cm.Flowering and fruiting plants should not be transplanted. Adult trees do not pass at all, limiting themselves to renewing the top layer of the soil.
Reference. The pot material is not so important, it can be ceramic, plastic or wood. The main thing is that there are drainage holes for good aeration of the soil and protection from mold.
Growing from a bone
The most laborious process and unpredictable result. When growing tangerine from a stone, the plant does not bloom for a long time, and fruiting may not occur at all. The fruit will be smaller and of a different taste than the parent fruit. But it is interesting to observe the whole process from germination to maturation.
For germination, only healthy bones are taken - they do not look dried, without damage and a black top. The sooner the grain gets from the tangerine into the ground, the better. But if this is not possible, the seeds are germinated in wet gauze.
Meanwhile, prepare the container. At the initial stage, even a 0.2 liter plastic cup is suitable, in the bottom of which drainage holes are pierced.
Citrus soil is purchased at a flower shop, as it is guaranteed to be disinfected and has optimal acidity. The hatched or fresh bones are deepened 4 cm into the soil. Provide moderate watering as the topsoil dries up.
Important! Do not cover with cans or polyethylene. Plants tolerate home cultivation well, but greenhouse conditions are destructive for them.
After 15-30 days (depending on the variety), the first shoots will hatch. When four leaves appear, the seedlings are transferred into pots with a diameter of 8-10 cm and a depth of at least 12-15 cm. If all the seeds have sprouted, they are settled in separate containers. It is best to plant at least 5-8 seeds. First, not everyone will sprout. Secondly, for the vaccination.
Tangerines grown from seeds grow for a long time and need additional treatments:
- Crown formation. Only branches of 4-5 orders of magnitude bear fruit, therefore, first pinch the main sprout after reaching 35-40 cm in height. Then, as lateral branches appear, they are cut off after the appearance of 5-6 leaves. The whole process takes 4-5 years.
- Top dressing. It is best to fertilize with a special citrus blend, but organic will work as well. Mandarins respond well to mullein diluted in a 1:10 ratio.
- Hibernation. In order for the tangerine to begin to bloom, at the age of 5-6 years, it needs seasonal rest at a temperature not higher than + 10 ... + 12 ° С and darkening for 3-4 months.
- Flowering stimulation... If, after a period of winter dormancy, the mandarin has not bloomed, perform the following procedure: the lower part of the trunk is tightly tied with copper wire, as a result of which the sap flow slows down, and the plant blooms.
- Load control. For every 20 leaves, one flower or ovary is left. So the plant will not be overloaded and will be able to fully bear fruit.
The most proven way to get guaranteed results. The seedlings are either grown from cuttings or are already grafted. The most viable and undersized varieties are grown for sale. You can get a harvest already for 2-3 years (depending on the age of the plant). Caring for them is minimal: backlighting in the winter, timely watering and feeding.
A good option for getting a home plant from exactly the variety you like. This can be done where tangerines grow in their natural environment.
Choose a one-year-old branch 20-25 cm long and cut obliquely with a sharp knife. The bottom is freed from bark and leaves, the top is pinched. Then it is wrapped with a damp dense cloth, placed at an angle of 45 ° in a shallow dish and water is periodically added.2-3 weeks after the appearance of the roots, the cutting is transplanted into a pot with a diameter of 20-25 cm and a depth of 30 cm and placed in a permanent place.
Further care consists in regular watering, fertilizing with nitrogen fertilizers and crown formation. After 3-5 years (depending on the variety), the tangerine will need winter rest before flowering.
If it was possible to grow a plant from a seed, but it does not bear fruit, there is a way out. A bud from a cultivated tree is grafted to a mandarin. But it is best to do this well in advance, while the sprout does not exceed 20 cm in height.
For the procedure, you will need a graft from a varietal plant - a bud with a leaf petiole.
On a seedling grown from a bone, an incision is made in the bark in the shape of a T, where the upper bar is 1 cm long and the “leg” is 2.5 cm. The edges are folded back and the bud of the cultivated plant is inserted inside. Then the bark is pressed tightly, the cut is treated with garden pitch and tightly tied with a bandage. After 3-4 weeks, the grafted kidney stalk will turn yellow and fall off. The bandage is removed, and the top of the stone fruit plant is cut at an angle of 45 ° 5 cm above the new branch.
It is interesting! How does a tangerine bloom? Once a year, in spring, small white flowers with a pleasant aroma shower the entire tree.
Features of caring for a tangerine tree at home
No matter how the plant is planted, it requires maintaining certain conditions and careful care.
In the summer, the tangerine feels good outside, even at night, if it's warm enough. The optimum temperature is + 25 ... + 30 ° С. In the spring and during the flowering period, the air should not warm up above + 18 ... + 20 ° С, otherwise the buds will crumble.
In winter, the tangerine is in a resting phase at a temperature of + 10 ... + 12 ° C.
Mandarin is a southern plant, a lover of long daylight hours. During the rest period, it needs darkening. In autumn and spring, he needs additional lighting, extending the day by 2-3 hours in the morning and 3-4 in the evening. For this, special phytolamps or ordinary fluorescent lamps are used.
In their natural environment, tangerines grow in a subtropical climate. There the air humidity reaches 100%. But in the apartment they feel great even at 60-65%. To ensure this level, it is enough to use a humidifier or place open containers of water near the pots.
Do not use chlorinated tap water - this is detrimental to most indoor plants.... For irrigation, it is best to use rain or bottled water with a temperature of at least + 20 ° C. If this is not possible, tap water is defended for 2-3 days and only then tangerines are watered.
It is impossible to overmoisten the soil, and also to allow overdrying. The top layer of the soil serves as a guide - it should not have a dry crust on it. Watering is done more often in summer, less often in winter.
Mandarins are very responsive to spraying. The entire crown is moistened with warm, settled water from a spray bottle 2-3 times a week, except for the buds during the flowering period.
At least twice a month, special complex fertilizers for citrus fruits are introduced into the soil (they are sold in flower shops)... In summer, it is better to use organic manure diluted with water in a ratio of 1:10. But in this way, there is a high probability of introducing pests or pathogens into the soil.
If a transplant or flowering is to be done, or the tangerines are at rest, they cannot be fed.
Protection against diseases and pests
Mandarin is often attacked by insects and pathogens.
The main pests:
- spider mite;
- citrus nematode;
- greenhouse thrips;
If insects are found on the plant, they are fought with insecticidal preparations: "Actellik", "Sulfarid", "Aktofit", "Ferramol". But they cannot be used during the flowering or fruiting period so that harmful substances do not accumulate in the fruits.
In this case, sparing methods are used:
- pests are removed from plants by hand;
- tangerines are sprayed with soap (10 g per 1 liter of water) or vinegar (1 tsp. 9% per 1 liter of water) solution;
- if affected by a nematode that lives in the soil, the bush must be transplanted into clean soil.
Pathogenic microorganisms cause diseases of mandarins:
- Anthracnose: with excessive moisture, light spots appear on the leaves, which darken over time. The infected parts of the plant are cut off, the bush is sprayed with any fungicide.
- Late blight: brown rings on the trunks. If found, they are cleaned off, the tree is sprayed with a 3% solution of copper sulfate.
- Gommoz: brown spots on the branches, leading to damage to the bark, cracks. Cleanse the infected areas, treat with 3% copper sulfate.
- Root rot: yellowing and falling of leaves. It is usually too late to save the plant when found.
Mandarin diseases caused by viruses or bacteria cannot be cured.
Transplant and pruning
To form a mandarin crown, two methods are used: pinching the tops and forced growth in the desired direction.
In the first case, the main trunk is cut off when it reaches 25-30 cm and all side branches are above 4-5 leaves. This allows the mandarin to branch out and take on a fan-like shape for better illumination of the entire crown.
In the second case, all the branches are tied to the edge of the pot with wire, forming a palm-like appearance. Then the tree will branch well and give a lot of leaves, thanks to which it will look beautiful. This method also stimulates the tangerine to bloom.
Plants are transplanted as they grow. Up to the age of five - annually, then - once every 4-6 years. The optimal time is early spring. In order not to cause stress in the tangerine, they transplant it together with an earthen lump into a pot 5-6 cm in diameter larger than the previous one.
It is interesting:
Growing citrus fruits at home is a troublesome but very interesting activity. It is best to purchase a grown seedling in a specialized store in order to shorten the time to flowering and fruiting. In addition, such plants undergo phytosanitary control, and the probability of getting a diseased tree is extremely small. Caring for a tangerine requires patience and work, but the result will exceed all expectations - small fragrant suns on the windowsill in the middle of winter.