How, when and how to spray apple trees in the spring against pests and diseases
The apple harvest is the pride of any gardener. It is impossible to take your eyes off the flowering apple trees, from the branches hanging under the weight of the fruits. And talking about the benefits of these fruits, perhaps, would be superfluous.
In order for apple trees to bear fruit abundantly, they need care and preventive measures throughout the season, especially in spring. During this time of the year, trees are most susceptible to diseases and pests. Spring processing is one of the most important care steps. Let's talk about this in more detail.
The content of the article
The goals of spring processing of apple trees
Spring care for apple trees involves a set of various measures, which include pruning, feeding, whitewashing, and tree protection.
The main purpose of the treatment is to protect plants from fungal diseases and pests. Many insects hibernate on the branches of apple trees in the egg stage, so they begin to process the trees in early spring. Thanks to correct and timely spring processing, there will be less work in the summer.
What pests threaten apple trees
Insects bring a lot of harm to the culture. They eat leaves or suck out their juice, spoil the bark and roots of the tree, destroy buds, ovaries and buds.
Depending on the nature of the damage, insects are divided into gnawing and sucking.
The main pests of apple trees:
- Apple moth... One of the most dangerous pests of apple trees. It is a nocturnal grayish-brown butterfly, reaching a wingspan of 20 mm. During the day, she hides in the crowns of trees. A week after the beginning of flowering of apple trees, the insect lays eggs on the upper side of the tree leaf. Caterpillars-moths are light pink with gray warts on the body, up to 18 mm long. They make wormholes through the whole apple, and within 25-30 days after flowering, a carrion appears.
- Apple comma scale... The shields blend in color with the bark of the trees, and resemble commas in shape. The size of the flaps is 2-4 mm. Under the shields are flat yellowish insects. Also, insect eggs are kept under the shields for the winter. The scale insect feeds on the juice of young branches and bark.
- Aphid. Insects up to 2 mm in size are brown or green. Eggs are laid for the winter near the buds on young branches. Aphids damage the tops of young shoots of apple trees and their leaves. After the defeat of aphids, the leaves curl and dry out, and the branches stop developing.
- Leaf roll. Caterpillars are green, up to 2 cm long, gnaw the skin of apples, roll up and gnaw the leaves.
- Apple blossom beetle (weevil). Beetles up to 7 mm long have a long proboscis. The weevil eats away the pistils and stamens of the buds and sticks the petals together.
- Apple moth... The butterfly develops from yellowish caterpillars up to 2 cm long. The insect settles on trees in colonies. Caterpillars eat young leaves and envelop the apple tree with cobwebs, forming cobweb nests.
- Red apple mite. It is up to 0.4 mm long and bright red. Due to its small size, it is difficult to see it on an apple tree. The mite lives on the underside of the leaves and forms a thin cobweb there. The arthropod moves along it. The mite infects the leaves, which first darken and then dry out.
It's not just insects that harm the apple harvest. The culture is susceptible to various diseases and fungal infections. They are easy to recognize by the appearance of trees and fruits.
Common apple diseases:
- Black cancer... One of the most dangerous diseases caused by fungal infections. Forms on the bark and branches of trees first brown spots, then darkening and depressed. Gradually, the spots increase in size and turn black. The bark begins to die off and crack. The disease causes death of the trunk and branches and affects more older apple trees. The affected branches are usually removed.
- Scab. A dangerous disease that affects leaves and fruits. It is caused by a fungus of the genus Venturia inaequalis. It becomes active at high air humidity and affects first young shoots, and then goes to the rest of the tree. It manifests itself as dark spots on the leaves at the end of flowering, which increase in size and then merge. After that, the leaves fall off. On young fruits, spots also appear covered with a green velvety bloom. Fetal tissue cracks and hardens in the affected area.
- Mold. It is also caused by fungal infections that get into wounds on the bark of a tree. Mold appears as gray-greenish spots on the bark. Fungi multiply very quickly and affect a significant part of the integument.
- Moniliosis (fruit rot). This fungal disease is caused by insect pests. The fruits first become soft, then they begin to rot. Rot also affects young shoots.
It is interesting:
Spring processing of apple trees is carried out in several stages.
First processing can only be carried out when the snow has already melted. At the same time, the air temperature should not fall below + 5 ° С. It is also necessary to carry out the first treatment before the kidneys swell.
Second once the culture is treated at a temperature of +10 to + 15 ° C. At this time, the buds swell and insect pests begin to awaken.
The third processing is carried out when the apple tree bud is already there, but has not yet opened. This is the time of awakening of the moth. Processing prevents the moth to lay eggs.
The last - fourth - processing is carried out after flowering. This is the time of ovary formation. Moth and moniliosis are also dangerous at this time.
Important! It is not recommended to process the apple tree immediately after flowering. Processing begins in 10-15 days.
Before treating apple trees from pests, they need to be prepared.
After winter, trees may become damaged and bark may peel off in places. The tree is examined, the old bark is cleaned. Small damages are treated with garden pitch. Traces of frostbite are cut to living tissue and treated with an antiseptic.
The bark of young trees can get sunburn, so apple trees under ten years old are whitewashed with lime or garden acrylic paint.
Important! The old bark of the tree is peeled off after the rain.
An important stage is spring pruning... It rejuvenates old trees, forms the crown, and regulates the fruiting function. Remove dry and damaged branches to a living place and cover with garden pitch. Young seedlings leave the most powerful skeletal branches.
What to process
To protect apple trees and get a bountiful harvest, you need to know how to spray apple trees in spring from pests and diseases. There is no shortage of funds now. The main thing is to choose them correctly and follow the instructions. Gardeners use biological and chemical agents, as well as folk methods.
Chemicals act faster than others, but require precise dosage. Exceeding it harms plants. It is necessary to spray apple trees with chemical agents before the start of sap flow.
- Carbamide (urea). Destroys leaf rollers, aphids, fungal diseases. Fills the soil with nitrogen. By the time the juices flow, the urea treatment products should have evaporated.10 l of water requires 20-30 g of carbamide.
- Copper sulfate. Apple trees are treated with copper-containing products once a year. Dilute 100 g of vitriol crystals in 10 liters of water.
- Bordeaux liquid... Destroys the larvae of most pests. The product contains copper. Bordeaux liquid is one of the best preventive remedies for apple tree diseases. For cooking, use 300 g of copper sulfate and 400 g of quicklime per 10 liters of water.
- Colloidal sulfur. An excellent protection against ticks. 80 g of sulfur are stirred in 10 l of water to a suspension.
- inkstone... A universal remedy that destroys insects and protects against fungal diseases. Preparation: 500 g vitriol per 10 liters of water.
Biological products are created on the basis of viruses and bacteria that destroy insects and fungal diseases.
Basic biological products:
- "Agrofit" destroys moths, moths and aphids;
- "Planriz" - one of the most versatile remedies that affects both diseases and insects;
- "Gaupsid" effectively affects fungal diseases;
- "Pentafag-S" it is used for the prevention and treatment of apple trees from black cancer;
- "Biktoxybacillin" - the drug is effective due to the effect on the digestive system of insect pests, they die very quickly.
Experienced gardeners recommend using a mixture of biological products for spraying. Spray with this solution at an air temperature of at least + 10 ° C. Lower temperatures reduce the effectiveness of the solution.
Important! Before spraying apple trees, you need to know the weather forecast for 1-2 days in advance. If it rains during this period, the effect will be minimal.
Folk remedies are used mainly to combat pests that destroy foliage and to fight diseases.
Common folk methods:
- Garlic. An infusion is prepared in the following proportions: 1 kg of garlic is poured into 10 liters of water and insisted for two hours.
- Pepper broth... 100 g of hot pepper is poured into 1 liter of water and boiled for two hours. Next, filter and add water to 10 liters.
- Camomile tea. 700 g of dried chamomile pour 5 liters of boiling water and leave for 10 hours. Add water to 10 l and dissolve 50 g of laundry soap.
- Soda. For 10 liters of water, take 70 g of soda and 20 g of liquid soap.
How to properly carry out spring processing of apple trees
Many underestimate the danger of chemicals used to spray apple trees, use ineffective remedies or do without them altogether. Such carelessness can cause significant harm to health, therefore, precautions must be taken when processing trees.
There are a number of necessary measures that everyone must follow when spraying trees:
- preparations for processing are prepared strictly according to the instructions;
- sprayed apple trees only in calm weather;
- use individual protective equipment: special clothing, respirator, goggles, gloves.
After spraying, they dig up the earth under the apple trees in a circle near the trunk. This is the diameter of the widest part of the crown. Dig it to the depth of the shovel pin, removing the roots of weeds.
In many regions, there are late spring frosts. At the same time, in apple trees, ovaries and flowers are most affected.
Protect apple trees from frost mainly in two ways:
- Smoke. Bonfires are made on the leeward side of the site. The material in the fire should only smolder to give off smoke. For these purposes, sawdust, last year's foliage, shavings are used.
- Water. Up to 60 liters of water is poured under each adult tree.
It is interesting:
To grow a bountiful harvest of apples, you will have to work hard in the spring.No matter how hardy the apple trees are, in the spring they need to be prepared for future fruiting: cleaned of old branches and bark, cut off excess branches, carefully process them from possible diseases and harmful insects, feed and water. With proper care, apple trees will delight you with a rich harvest, and in winter there will always be delicious jam, juice and pies on the table.