How and how to feed raspberries in the fall
In order to enjoy the generous harvest of garden raspberries from year to year, it is important to properly care for and fertilize them three times per season.
In spring and summer, the berry is treated to increase yields and protect against pests. Autumn feeding will help young shoots to grow up, get stronger and prepare for wintering. In the article we will tell you in detail how and what to feed raspberries in the fall.
The content of the article
- What raspberries need in autumn
- Terms of making autumn dressings
- Types of autumn dressings for raspberries
- The best fertilizers for raspberries in the fall
- How to fertilize raspberries correctly in the fall
- Features of autumn feeding by region
- Fertilizing raspberries after planting in the fall
What raspberries need in autumn
Experienced summer residents determine the lack of a particular nutrient by the appearance of plants.
With a deficiency of potassium, phosphorus or nitrogen trace elements are primarily redirected to the top of the plant to the young shoots. Therefore, the color and shape of the lower tiers of leaves in mid and late summer will tell you what the plant especially needs.
Early yellowed lower leaves with curled down edges, the gray color of the roots indicates a lack of nitrogen. Another sign is a visible slowdown in plant growth.
Crimson, purple, violet shades of the leaves of the lower tiers, poorly and slowly developing roots indicate the need to apply fertilizers containing phosphorus. The lack of this element leads to a decrease in yield.
If the edges of the leaf blade turn brown and die off, which means the plant lacks potassium. A slight potassium deficiency in the soil leads to a slowdown in the growth of young stems. With an acute shortage, there is a shortening of internodes, growth retardation and even the death of shoots.
When at the edges of the leaf and between the veins, the green color changes to yellow, red, purple, and the veins themselves remain green, the tips of the leaves bend, wrinkle and gradually die off - these are signs of a lack of magnesium. Most often, they are poor in sandy and sandy loam sod-podzolic soils.
Important! Slowdown in growth and change in the appearance of a shrub is not always associated with a lack of nutrients. Plant health can be affected by pest infestation, diseases and other unfavorable factors (drought, frost, excess of unnecessary elements, etc.).
Terms of making autumn dressings
From how correctly and timely the preparatory work for the winter will be carried out, depends on the health and yield of plantings in the next season.
General rule. The plantings are fed about a month before the onset of the rainy period and 2-2.5 months before frost.
Autumn feeding calendar by month:
- Far East: August 20 - September 10;
- Eastern Siberia: September 1-15;
- Western Siberia: September 7-20;
- Ural: September 10-25;
- middle lane, Moscow region: September 15-30;
- North Caucasus: September 20 - October 10.
These periods may vary slightly depending on the nuances of weather conditions.
Types of autumn dressings for raspberries
Experienced gardeners practice two ways of feeding the shrub: root and foliar.
When root feeding useful substances are applied in spring and / or autumn under raspberry bushes or at some distance from them.
Mineral fertilizers with microelements and organic matter are used.
For foliar irrigation the fertilizer is dissolved in water, poured into a spray bottle or watering can and sprayed whole raspberries... Young leaves are processed only in summer, at low temperatures, in the evening or early morning hours, in calm weather, no later than two hours before dew or rain falls. In order not to burn the leaves, you should avoid direct sunlight on the not dried solution.
Foliar dressing cannot completely replace root... Therefore, root dressing is the main, and foliar– additional, as needed.
The basis of autumn feeding is phosphorus and potash fertilizers... Phosphorus is needed to strengthen the root system, and potassium increases the frost resistance of the bushes.
As organic matter, summer residents use bird droppings, manure, wood ash, compost, bone meal, straw. Many grow green manures.
Important! It is not recommended to use nitrogen-containing fertilizers in autumn, as they have a bad effect on the frost resistance of plantations. Substances containing chlorine must not be used in raspberries.
The best fertilizers for raspberries in the fall
Almost any fertilizer for berry growers is sold ready-made in specialized stores. But many summer residents prefer only natural dressings prepared in their own garden with their own hands.
As a combined mineral fertilizer, usually used monopotassium phosphate, monophosphate, superphosphate. One bush in the fall requires 40-60 g of the mixture. Fertilizers are applied in accordance with the instructions on the package. Granular mixtures are scattered over the surface, and then the earth is dug to a depth of 7-10 cm.
A good option is a phosphorus-potassium mineral complex "Autumn" of the "Hera" trademark. It is distinguished by a properly selected composition, versatility and low price.
You can make complete nutritional mixes yourselfusing different components:
- potassium salt (40 g) + superphosphate (60 g) per bush, dug with the ground around the bush;
- zinc sulfate (3 g) + magnesium sulfate (5 g) is diluted in 5 liters of water - enough for watering 1 m²;
- wood ash (50 g) + superphosphate (50 g) are dissolved in 1 liter of water and watered with 1 m² of raspberries;
- manure (3 kg) + ash (1 glass) + nettle (1 kg) pour 20 liters of water, insist in the sun for one week, dilute with infusion of water in a ratio of 1:10, watered at the rate of 1 liter per 1 raspberry bush;
- equal amounts of comfrey and nettle are poured into 10 liters of water and insisted for 14 days in the sun, diluted with infusion of water at the rate of 1:10 - 2 liters of fertilizer are enough for a raspberry bush.
Despite the popular belief that organic fertilizers are never too much, this is not the case. To prevent the plant from getting root burns due to direct contact with fertilizer, it is important to follow the dosage and feeding rules.
Poultry manure is the most effective organic fertilizer for raspberries... For autumn feeding, fermented manure is used - in liquid form, diluting it with water in a ratio of 1:20. Water around the raspberry bush.
Important! Chicken manure contains nitrogen, which takes time for shrubs to process. Therefore, feeding should be carried out at the end of summer, but not in the fall or before winter.
Manure is used as bird droppings, but the water solution for irrigation is made at the rate of 1:40... High concentration of active substances in droppings and manure can lead to root burns. It is not recommended to exceed the dosage.
Ash is one of the cheapest fertilizers, especially good for raspberries due to the absence of chlorine. It can replace the phosphorus-potassium complex. It is applied in the form:
- dry top dressing - shallow grooves are made around the plants, ash is poured at the rate of 1 cup per 1 m² of raspberries, sprinkled on top with earth or dry leaves;
- liquid feeding - a glass of ash is diluted in 10 liters of water and insisted for seven days, watered at the rate of 0.5 buckets per bush.
Compost is spread evenly over the soil surface based on 5 kg of compost per 1 m² and dug up.
2-3 kg of peat per 1 m² are dug up from the ground or mulched on the surface.
Siderates are also used: vetch, clover, oats or mustard, planted in spring in raspberry soil. There is no specific dosage here. After harvesting raspberries at the end of summer, the greens are dug up from the ground.
Council. Experienced gardeners do not recommend using organic and mineral fertilizers in one year. But if you want to properly fertilize the soil, the dosage of each type of fertilizer is halved.
How to fertilize raspberries correctly in the fall
So that the bush does not get root burn, the ground must be wet before groundbaiting.
Dry top dressing is carefully dug up with the ground.
So that the liquid composition reaches the plant faster, dig a groove around the bush with a diameter of 30-35 cm and a depth of 10-15 cm, pour the mixture into it and add it dropwise.
Any granular mineral fertilizer (especially superphosphate) it is better to pre-dissolve in hot water (but not in boiling water), since the granules dissolve poorly in cold water.
About feeding other crops:
Step-by-step instructions for autumn raspberry care
When the crop is already harvested, it is recommended:
- pull out weeds, dig up green manure;
- fertilize the soil;
- to carry out sanitary pruning: cut off dry, diseased stems with a pruning shears - it is undesirable to cut out old strong shoots in the fall, they will help to overwinter, and in the spring it will be time to remove them;
- treat bushes from pests and diseases with soda ash (not baking) soda (200 g of soda per bucket of water) or a biological product to protect plants from diseases "Trichoderma veride" (2 tsp per bucket of water) - spray or pour stems from a watering can;
- water the plantings with water: 50-60 liters per 1 m²;
- mulch with peat, sawdust, compost, straw, branches or needles;
- bend the branches and tie up.
Raspberry mulching is an agricultural technique that aims to protect the root system, retention of moisture in the soil and improvement of the water-air regime.
Features of autumn feeding by region
Features of growing raspberries depend on climatic conditions, soil composition, plant varieties.
If it is problematic to predict the weather for the coming summer period, and each summer resident has his own preferences for varieties, then there are general agrotechnical recommendations for land enrichment.
First of all you need to know exactly the type of soil in the area where raspberries grow, and then choose the most suitable type of fertilizer.
In the Moscow region, podzolic soils and chernozems prevail, in the Urals - bog-peat and podzolic, in Siberia - podzolic and gley, in the Volga region - chernozems, salt marshes, sands.
For the cultivation of acidic podzolic soil, liming (in a small amount), planting green manure and the introduction of organic matter is useful: peat, manure. Mineral fertilizers are used with caution. Abundant precipitation wash out nitrogen fertilizers from the fertile layer, therefore they are introduced in the form of nitrates. And ammonium sulfate, which increases acidity, is better not to use.
Sandy soil contains little organic matter and mineral salts... Therefore, such soil is diluted with manure, humus, spattered leaves, silt or sapropel. Mulching and sowing green manure is also important.
For rational feeding of sandstones with organic matter, the rule works: the amount of fertilizer - decrease, the frequency of application - increase. Mineral fertilizers (especially those dissolved in water) are used with caution, as they quickly seep through the sand layer and can burn the roots.
In the first years of the development of areas with clay soil, it is advisable to make a lot of organic fertilizers - rotted manure, peat, compost compost, and dig it to a depth of no more than 10-12 cm, every year increasing the digging depth by only 1-2 cm.If the earth is heavy, then you can add straw, finely chopped branches, bark, ash.It will be possible to make the land fertile only in a few years.
It is useful to lime peat soils using ground limestone, slaked lime, dolomite flour, chalk, ash. Lime is not recommended to be applied to the soil together with phosphorus fertilizers and ammonia forms of nitrogen fertilizers. To improve the fertility of such soils, it is also useful to enrich them with sand and clay.
When carrying out seasonal work, it is important to follow the rulesso as not to damage the plantings:
- work in the evening or on cloudy days;
- the soil in the berry must be moist;
- apply fertilizers strictly according to the instructions;
- do not scatter fresh (only rotted) manure in the berry;
- start regular seasonal feeding 3-4 years after planting raspberries.
Compliance with these rules, combined with favorable weather conditions, will help to get an excellent harvest. next year.
Fertilizing raspberries after planting in the fall
Some gardeners prefer to plant raspberries in the fall.... In this case, preparation begins 1.5-2 months before planting.
Up to 10 kg of rotted manure or compost is applied per 1 m² of soil, 80-100 g of phosphorus and 40-80 g of potash fertilizers, 400-800 g of wood ash.
Siderates are sown in advance at the raspberry planting site or growing legumes. After them, the soil becomes rich in nitrogen and minerals.
Before planting, mineral fertilizers are scattered on the ground, organic matter is added from above, the soil is carefully dug up and pits or trenches are made in it for planting seedlings.
Autumn feeding of berries lays the foundation for the future harvest. Raspberries love to grow in fertile and moist soil. Lack of nutrition negatively affects the yield and taste of berries. The choice of the type and method of caring for plants depends on the summer resident.
The main thing is to remember that fertilizers must be applied in reasonable quantities and at the correct time.