Why petunia flowers are good and how to grow them correctly
It is impossible to imagine a garden plot without flowers - colorful and fragrant buds attract attention. Petunia adorns summer cottages and summer cottages around the world. She came to Russia from Brazil. There are large and multi-flowered varieties. We will tell in the article about the meaning of petunia in human life, useful properties and contraindications, about how petunia flowers look and what rules are recommended to be followed when growing.
The content of the article
- What is petunia
- Petunia species
- Optimal growing conditions
- General landing rules
- How to properly care for petunia
- Planting petunias in open ground
- Common growing mistakes
- The healing properties of petunia
- Tips from experienced florists
What is petunia
This one or perennial garden plant belongs to the Solanaceae family. The root system is weakly branched, the stems are round, green. They can be straight or creeping, depending on the variety. Stem heights range from 20 cm (short) to 60 cm (tall). Stems and leaves are slightly pubescent.
Flowers are funnel-shaped, corollas are smooth or ribbed. Several groups are distinguished according to the shape of the flower: large-flowered (from 7 to 13 cm in diameter) and multi-flowered (from 5 to 8 cm). Petunia colors are white, pink, red, light blue, blue, purple. According to the shape of the plant, ampel, bush and cascade are distinguished.
To grow a beautiful and healthy petunia in the garden, it is recommended to study the main characteristics of the variety, the features of its cultivation, the names of popular species. We will consider the structure of flowers of different varieties further.
The variety of American selection quickly took root in Russia. An annual plant, the height of herbaceous stems is 30-35 cm. The leaves are small, oval, pubescent. The diameter of the flower bushes is no more than 28 cm. The flowers are simple with a wavy edge.
The diameter of the corolla is about 1 cm. It can be painted in pale pink, light blue, purple - depending on the variety. Also, these colors accompany different shades, streaks and overflows, which make Sophistika even more beautiful and original. The shade of the petunia can vary depending on the lighting. The flowering of Sophistika begins from the end of June and continues until the first frost.
Ornamental plant, annual, low, bloom starts in June. The petals are thin and delicate, painted in a light purple color. Purple veins are visible on the surface, making Anastasia easy to distinguish from other varieties. The size of the flower is about 6 cm, the height of the bush is 30 cm.
The dense corolla is not injured by rain and wind, which makes the variety suitable for growing in regions with unfavorable climatic conditions. Anastasia is suitable for growing in garden and balcony containers and flower beds, rarely gets sick.
The annual petunia variety has more than 30 varieties. The plant is undersized, the height varies from 25 to 50 cm, the diameter of the giant flowers is about 10 cm. The leaves are rich green, the color of the flowers is white, crimson, pink, blue, purple. The flower surface can be plain or terry.
The growing season begins in early summer and lasts until the first frost. Grow petunia for flower beds, borders, garden structures. Grandiflora is sensitive to weather changes, does not tolerate rain.Due to the increased humidity, the flowers crumble, rot appears on the shoots.
The length of the shoots is about 1 m, the size of the flowers is 6 cm, the shape is funnel-shaped. The color is different: white, blue, blue, purple. Bushes are dense, branched, gardeners give them a spherical or hanging shape - depending on preferences and growing conditions. For example, a spherical plant is suitable for the ground, and a hanging plant for a planter. For long flowering, homemade ampelous petunia Opera Supreme needs regular fertilizers and dressing. It is also important to promptly remove wilted shoots and flowers.
Attention! Most ampel varieties are thermophilic, so it is recommended to plant them in warm and well-heated areas. Ampel varieties are appreciated for the rapid growth of shoots, lush and long flowering period, large flowers, various shades. For the best development of shoots, it is recommended to plant such a petunia on a hill.
Petunia Ramblin is grown on the site, in pots or indoor garden pots - it looks equally beautiful anywhere. The bushes are of a cascading type, of medium size, the shoots develop unevenly. Color options are different - from white to red, from blue to deep blue. There are specimens of the color of the starry sky or lime, salmon, lavender, peach, burgundy.
An annual plant, the buds are arranged in a solid wall. The shrub takes an attractive spherical shape on its own, without the participation of gardeners. In care, Ramblin is whimsical, you need to know the basic rules for growing petunias.
Ampel petunia is ideal for growing in containers and outdoor conditions.
Easy wave blooms in the year of sowing, pleases gardeners with large multi-colored flowers. The plant is annual, dome-shaped and spherical. The length of the lash is up to 1 m, the flowers form a continuous flooring. Different color: purple, red, white, pink. The variety also has a pleasant sweetish aroma. Petunia is unpretentious in leaving, does not require regular maintenance and fertilizers.
Bergundi cascade petunia appeared on the market relatively recently. The height of the bush is about 30 cm, the shoots are strong and long - about 70 cm. The size of the flower is 5 cm, the color is red-purple or dark blue. Burgundy blooms from May to October, mainly grown in the open field... The flowers are multilevel, with corrugated edges. Corollas are small, yellow.
Surfinia is a type of garden petunia from Japanese breeders. The flowers are bell-shaped, the size is about 9 cm. The shades are bright, the petals are delicate, with clear veins. Surfinia is grown in central Russia, on nutritious and breathable soils. The plant has a developed root system that requires regular fertilization. Surfinia belongs to ampelous petunias, gives a large number of lateral shoots and many flowers.
Attention! In addition to the above varieties, flower growers distinguish Tumbelina, Cascadis, Kreizitunia, Priscilla, Spherica, Typhoon, Tornado, Fanfara, Silver. Flowers grow well in the open air, used in landscape design.
Optimal growing conditions
Most petunia varieties prefer warm, dry summers. For abundant flowering, they are planted on loose and fertile soil of sandy loam or loamy type. The land must be well fertilized. Also, the growing season requires sunlight; in the shade or partial shade, petunia does not grow well. The plant prefers southern or southeastern areas. It is not recommended to grow petunia near groundwater, wetlands and water bodies - due to the humid environment, the plant will often get sick.
Attention! If a grow petunia on the balcony or in greenhouses, it is important to provide a regular supply of fresh air. Otherwise, shoots and flowers develop slowly, grow weak and dry, quickly crumble.
General landing rules
To grow a beautiful petunia in a garden flower bed, it is recommended to pay attention to the choice of seed and capacity, observe planting dates and other recommendations.
Selection of seeds, containers and soil
Petunia seeds are very small, so gardeners purchase them in special granules. The seeds are hidden in the shell, it is easy to sow such petunia... When the plantings are moistened, the shell dissolves, only seed... The seed is sold in specialized stores. Experienced gardeners recommend carefully reading the expiration date and manufacturer information on the packaging.
The soil should be light, moisture-permeable and nutritious. Most gardeners use store-bought all-purpose garden soil. Sand or biohumus is added to it to make it looser. Some people mix soil with peat chips to speed up the development of the root system. Also, the earth should be neutral in acidity.
For planting, special garden containers with drainage holes are suitable. These can be cassettes or pallet boxes. They are washed with water, disinfected with a weak solution of potassium permanganate, rinsed and wiped dry with a clean towel.
Planting time depends on the growing region. In the south, seeds are planted from mid-January to February, in the Moscow region - in February. In the Volga region, petunias are sown from late February to April, in the Urals and Siberia - from early March to April. When planting, it is important to provide 10-hour daylight hours. When there is a lack of light, backlighting with fluorescent lamps is organized.
Ready soil is poured into the container, leaving the sides about 1 cm. The seeds are placed in the soil and sprayed with warm water, then the container is covered with glass, and the earth is not sprinkled on top. Recommended air temperature for sowing is not less than + 20 ° С. Seedlings appear on 4-6 days, and after a month they dive into a larger container.
How to properly care for petunia
During the development of seedlings, it is important to maintain growing conditions and follow the rules of care... 7-10 days after the picking, petunia is fertilized - mineral complex dressings containing nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and iron are applied. Water the plant as the soil dries up at the root, bypassing the stems and leaves. They use warm water, cold water can provoke the development of dangerous microbes. In order for the plant to grow branchy and neat, the seedlings are pinched.
Attention! If the seedlings are stretched, it means that they do not have enough light. Petunia is not grown on northern windowsills or in the shade. With a lack of lighting, gardeners use phytolamps.
Protection against diseases and pests
If the shoots of petunias fall, most likely the reason lies in the black leg... Fungal disease is activated in conditions of high humidity and with a lack of sunlight. The causative agents of the disease are hidden in the soil or in the seed. If a black leg is found, it is recommended to immediately remove the affected stems and leaves, and treat the remaining plants and soil with a formalin solution.
If the plant turns yellow, it is affected by chlorosis. The cause of the disease is a lack of nutrients and organic substances, acidic soil, irrigation with cold water. Ferovit helps to get rid of chlorosis.
Of the pests, they pose a threat to seedlings aphid, spider mites, thrips. Most often, they affect already adult plants, but they are also found in seedlings. To combat insects, flower growers use spraying with chemicals - "Intavir", "Confidor", "Aktara".
Planting petunias in open ground
Petunia is planted in open ground in the second half of May, after the last frost. For planting, choose the morning or evening of a cloudy day, prepare holes in advance at a distance of 20 cm from each other. Seedlings are pre-watered, the plants are carefully moved from the container into the soil, trying not to damage the fragile roots.After the soil is mulched and moistened with warm water.
Petunias are fed with ready-made mixtures: "Garden of Miracles", "Magic Watering Can", "Ideal", "Kemira". Fertilizing is introduced in accordance with the dosage indicated on the package. Biohumus, boric acid, potassium-phosphorus compounds also stimulate the growth of flowers.
Attention! The plant is often watered, especially in hot weather. The top layer of the earth should not dry out, so the recommended cleanliness of watering is 1 time in 4-5 days. In a rainy summer, watering is reduced. Stagnant water causes disease, especially if no drainage layer was prepared during planting.
Common growing mistakes
When growing seedlings, some gardeners use mayonnaise cans or milk cartons. It is not forbidden to grow petunia in such containers, but do not forget about the disinfection of the container. Traces of products may remain on the walls and bottom, which, when in contact with the soil, form microflora unfavorable for petunia. It is important not only to rinse the container with water, but also to treat it with a disinfectant.
Another common mistake when growing is a thickened planting of petunias on the site. Many varieties are lush, so they require a spacious flower bed. If the seedlings are planted too tightly together, the flowers and shoots will not have enough space and nutrients. Petunia will slow down in growth or stop developing altogether. For 1 sq. m planted no more than 7 bushes.
The healing properties of petunia
Gardeners claim that the flower scent of petunia has a beneficial effect on the human respiratory tract, improves the functioning of the nervous and digestive systems, relieves stress... Also petunia cheers up, helps to get rid of headaches. The flower does not cause allergies, which is especially true for those who cannot stand harsh and intense aromas.
Attention! There is no scientific basis for the benefits or harms of petunia for humans. Leaves, flowers and shoots are not yet used in traditional medicine or other fields.
Tips from experienced florists
To breed a beautiful and bright petunia, it is recommended to follow the advice of experienced florists. They will help you avoid common mistakes. For example, before buying seeds, it is better to study the reviews and photos of the variety or ask your friends.
A few tips from gardeners who know everything about petunia:
- for planting, purchase seeds in a special shell;
- prepare the soil and container for planting in advance;
- keep seedlings in a warm and sunny place, if there is a lack of light, purchase phytolamps;
- when 2-3 leaves appear, dive seedlings in a larger container;
- plant seedlings on a site in cloudy calm weather;
- water and mulch the soil immediately after planting;
- fertilize petunia with organic and mineral substances;
- regularly inspect for diseases or pests and take protective measures.
Before planting petunias, flower growers recommend studying the description of the plant, its appearance, planting rules. Among the popular varieties are petunia Grandiflora Prism, Tumbelina, Anastasia, Opera Supreme. You can study the color range of petunias in online catalogs - most varieties are distinguished by their original colors. Summer residents grow flowers using the seedling method, prepare seeds, soil and container in advance. Planting dates depend on the growing regions. For the correct development of petunias, it is recommended to regulate the moisture level and regularly root feeding.