A beginner's guide: how to care for roses in spring
Rose bushes are a unique decoration for any garden area. They look appropriate both in small flower beds and in chic rose gardens. Agronomists plant shrubs in central Russia, Moscow region, southern and northern regions. We will tell you how to care for a rose in spring and what to pay special attention to.
The content of the article
- Removing shelters
- Identifying and resolving hive problems
- Essential rose care in spring
- Spring protection of roses from diseases and pests
- Features of spring care for young and old roses
- The nuances of caring for roses, depending on the growing region
- Planting new roses in spring
- Tips from experienced florists
Before winter, gardeners cover roses with sawdust, branches or earth. They protect heat-loving flowers from frost and snow.... With the arrival of spring, the shelter is removed. It is important to correctly determine the timing of the procedure. If you overexpose the shelter, the roses will rebuke, which will increase the risk of developing bacterial diseases. They begin to open the rose in late March or early April.
They remove the shelter when stable warm weather is established and all the snow has melted. They do not remove the protection immediately, but gradually - within a week, the bushes are aired for 2-3 hours daily. Then they remove the shelter and shade the plants with a garden awning or shading film so that they get used to the weather conditions.
Sometimes, opening roses, gardeners notice a dirty white film on the shoots. It's not scary, after 2-3 days it will disappear. If some of the stems are covered with a black coating, it is recommended to remove them. Also, after removing the shelter, they remove all last year's leaves and loosen the soil - this will improve the flow of air to the root system.
Identifying and resolving hive problems
After removing the shelter, problems may arise - the appearance of spots, burns, cracking of the bark. If bright crimson or brown spots are visible on the branches, this indicates an infectious burn that has developed on the bushes under cover during the winter. In this case, the growers cut the branches to a healthy, light-colored tissue. This is necessary to secure the entire bush. After pruning, the roses are treated with a Bordeaux mixture or a solution of copper sulfate - 100 g of the drug per 10 liters of water.
Attention! If a break in the bark or cracks is noticed on the bushes, the affected branches are cut into a ring, there is no point in treating them. It is better to immediately make room for the growth of new and healthy shoots.
Essential rose care in spring
Rose is a fragile and demanding plant to care for. In the spring, it is especially important to follow the rules of agricultural technology. Gardeners pay special attention to pruning, feeding and mulching.
Pruning has several important functions: gardeners form the plant, remove old and dry shoots, and stimulate the development of new ones. Thanks to the procedure, the rose rejuvenates after winter and begins to form flower buds.
Pruning times vary depending on the growing region. Experienced summer residents recommend focusing on weather conditions. It is important that the night frosts go away and the air temperature warms up to + 12 ° C. It is at this time that the buds of the rose swell, but the shoots are not yet growing. In cold regions, pruning is carried out in mid-May, in warm regions - in mid or late April.
There are 3 types of rose pruning:
- Anti-aging. Gardeners make room for the growth of young shoots. Old branches are removed 20 cm in height. The procedure is carried out only on roses over 3 years old.
- Preventive. It is aimed at eliminating diseased branches, preventing the appearance of diseases.
- Thinning.Remove old side shoots.
When carrying out the procedure, it is important to follow the rules:
- cut roses with a garden pruner, otherwise cracks will appear that will contribute to the multiplication of bacteria;
- the tool is disinfected with a solution of potassium permanganate;
- on a dry and warm day, remove all old, sick, dry, lateral and growing shoots inside the bush;
- slices are made at a distance of 1 cm above a healthy kidney;
- plants are treated with garden varnish (they are prepared on their own or bought in a store).
Fertilizers promote healthy shoot growth and bud development. The first feeding is carried out at the stage of flower formation, when the rose especially needs nitrogen. Summer residents under each bush bring 3 kg of rotted manure or 100 g of chicken droppings. Before fertilization, the plant is watered abundantly with warm water.
If there is no organic matter in stock, apply mineral dressing - add 30 g of ammonium nitrate under each bush. For young shrubs, it is recommended to use nitrogen fertilizers in liquid form: 1 tbsp. l. ammonium nitrate is diluted in 10 liters of water and the roses are watered at the root at the rate of 2-3 liters per bush.
The next time the plant is fertilized in May, after 2-3 weeks. So summer residents make up for the deficiency of potassium and phosphorus. The first increases the bush's resistance to fungal and viral diseases, and the second affects the formation of peduncles and buds.
For 1 sq. m add 30-40 g of superphosphate or 15 g of potassium sulfate. Not only the health of the shrubs depends on vitamins and trace elements, but also the appearance of flowers. The next dressing of roses is carried out in the summer.
Attention! A popular and affordable fertilizer for roses is ash solution. It contains phosphorus and potassium. To prepare top dressing, 10 liters of water and 1 tbsp. ash.
Mulch protects roses from insects and rodents and prevents weeds from growing. They use organic matter: peat, ash, coniferous sawdust, straw and hay, compost. Mulch permits and at the same time retains moisture, has an antiseptic effect.
First, weeds and fallen leaves are removed, and then the soil is covered with a mulch layer 5 cm thick. The procedure is carried out at any time of the year, but it is preferable to do this in early spring. Mulch decomposes slowly and nourishes the soil, which is beneficial for any garden shrub.
Spring protection of roses from diseases and pests
Diseases and pests arise for various reasons: due to sudden changes in the weather, contaminated planting material or soil. To protect roses, summer residents take preventive measures - they treat plants with a solution of copper oxychloride (4%) or a suspension of colloidal sulfur (1%).
The following mixture is used against powdery mildew and rust: 300 g of grated laundry soap is diluted in 9 liters of warm water. At the same time, a solution of copper sulfate is prepared - 30 g of the drug per 1 liter of water. The two compositions are mixed and sprayed with a spray bottle every 10 days.
To protect shrubs from insects (aphids, leaf rollers, spider mites), watering with wormwood tincture is used. For cooking, take 400 g of fresh leaves and 50 g of dried ones. The leaves are poured into 10 liters of cold water and infused for 2 weeks. Before use, the solution is diluted with water in a ratio of 1:10. To enhance the effect, you can add 100 g of liquid soap to it.
Attention! When affected by bacterial or fungal diseases, summer residents remove diseased leaves and shoots and burn them. Otherwise, it can lead to the death of other rose bushes and plants planted nearby.
Features of spring care for young and old roses
Young roses are sensitive to temperature extremes and waterlogging. To protect the bushes from possible spring frosts, it is recommended to compact the soil at the base of the plant and sprinkle it with cleaned river sand.
For watering young roses, use thawed or settled water at room temperature. Cold watering will lead to the development of bacteria and fungi. The roots cool down and lose their ability to absorb moisture. When applying fertilizers for young plantings, it is important to observe the proportions of nutrients. If the leaves of the bush are covered with yellow-gray spots, this signals an overabundance of trace elements.
Attention!It is not recommended to cut flowers from young roses for bouquets, especially with leaves. This can lead to the fact that the formation of buds will slow down next year.
Old roses are demanding on moisture, with a lack of it, the bushes shed their foliage. Climbing roses, which grow near buildings, especially need moisture. You should not take water from open sources, as pathogens live in it. In addition to root dressing of old roses, gardeners pay attention to foliar spraying - plants are treated with Bordeaux liquid. It is important that the ground around the shrub is loose.
For the vaccinated and the feral
Rosehips are mainly used for grafting roses.... In the early years, such shrubs do not feed, they pay attention to watering and mulching. In the second year in spring, the grafted plant is cut off and mineral fertilizers are applied. Shoots are shortened by 10-15 cm, and old and dead ones are removed entirely. The second time the procedure is carried out in the summer, after flowering.
All branches are cut at a height of 35-40 cm. From April, the bushes are examined for spots and damage, since it is at this time that aphids are actively manifesting themselves. Young foliage of wild roses is sprayed with fungicides or folk remedies - infusion of nettle or tansy. Shrubs are processed once every 15 days.
The nuances of caring for roses, depending on the growing region
In regions with an unstable climate (for example, in the Urals and Siberia) roses need special nutrition. Shrubs respond well to fertilizing with complex fertilizers. They contain mineral and organic substances, are easy to prepare and use. Summer residents use "Citovit". It contains nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, copper, molybdenum and cobalt. The drug improves metabolism, reduces ovary shedding and increases disease resistance. The fertilizer dissolves well in water and does not cause plant burns; it is used for both old and young roses.
In warm areas, the soil is loosened after watering or rains. The distance from the base of the shrub should be at least 6 cm so as not to damage the root system. If the weather is dry and hot outside, water the rose once every 5-7 days. If it rains and the weather is humid - once every 10-12 days.
Planting new roses in spring
If roses are planted in spring, they are less prone to frost. Over the summer, they build up the root system, the wood matures, the shoots get stronger. When landing, use purchased cuttings.
How to plant
Roses grow well in southwestern areas with a slight slope... The place should be protected from the wind, sunny and well-lit, in the shade the bushes develop slowly. Roses love fertile soil - acidic and wet lands are not suitable. The distance between the bushes is at least 50 cm.
The depth of the planting hole is 60 cm, diameter is 50 cm. The top layer of earth is mixed with ash or river sand to make the soil looser and lighter. If the groundwater is close to the site, a drainage layer of crushed stone or pebbles is laid on the bottom of the hole. The roots of the seedlings are dipped in a clay mash, placed in a pit, straightened and sprinkled with earth. The final stage of planting is hydration.
When to plant roses in open ground
Suitable time is from mid-April to early May. Planting too early in March will freeze the seedlings.The timing depends on the region, so it is recommended to pay attention only to the weather conditions. You should not plant shrubs if the snow has not yet melted and warm weather has not been established.
Further care for roses consists of standard procedures: watering, dressing, loosening, mulching. During the summer, organic and mineral fertilizers are applied under the bushes, after moistening the ground. Every 2-3 weeks, the plants are sprayed with a solution of copper sulfate or Bordeaux liquid to protect them from diseases and pests. During the flowering period, make sure that there are no aphids and spider mites on the leaves and shoots.
In the fall, they begin preventive pruning, prepare the plant for winter. Remove weak shoots and cover the shrub with sawdust or earth. Also, before winter, manure is introduced so that the roses can withstand the cold and wind.
It is interesting:
Tips from experienced florists
To decorate the garden with bright and beautiful shrubs, we recommend that you listen to experienced flower growers. Simple rules will help protect roses from disease in the garden and in the country, and also extend their lifespan:
- plant shrubs in the morning on a cloudy day;
- to protect from insects treatment with the preparation "Fitoverm";
- during pruning, remove not only old, but also frostbitten shoots;
- do not use fresh manure for feeding, only rotted;
- lack of nutrition is just as harmful as excess - it is important to follow dosages and instructions;
- the rose does not grow well on acidic soils, so sprinkle the soil with dolomite flour before planting.
Spring rose care begins with removing the shelter. Sawdust or soil is removed gradually so that the plant gets used to the weather. Then they start pruning - remove diseased and dry branches, make room for new shoots.
In April, the first feeding is carried out - mineral or organic fertilizers are applied. They promote plant development and normalize metabolism. Rotten manure, poultry manure solution, superphosphate or urea are used. Water the roses with water at room temperature, regularly loosen the soil and mulch it with sawdust, hay, sand.